Chapter 2- Bonding and properties

Chapter 2- Bonding and properties - CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND...

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CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. • What promotes bonding? • What types of bonds are there? • What properties are inferred from bonding? 1 Chapter 2 -
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Atomic Structure (Freshman Chem.) •A t o m electrons, m e = 9.11 x 10 -31 kg protons, m p = 1.67 x 10-27 kg neutrons, m n = 1.67 x 10-27 kg Atomic number Z - number of protons in nucleus of atom ( 1 for hydrogen to 94 for plutonium) = number of electrons of neutral species N – number of neutrons in nucleus of atom atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C = 1.66 x 10 -27 kg Atomic mass A (in amu/atom) = relative atomic mass of chemical element atomic mass A = Z + N Mole mass (in g/mol) = mass of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms (Avogadro’s number) 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol 2 Chapter 2 -
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3 Chapter 2 - Nucleus orbital electrons: n = principal quantum number n=3 2 1 Adapted from Fig. 2.1, Callister 6e. Rutherford-Bohr Model of Atom Bohr postulates: (a) The electron revolves in circular orbits of special radius around the nucleus. These orbits are called stationary states with a definite energy value . (b) The electron can jump from one stationary orbit to another emitting or absorbing photon.
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Electronic Structure • Electrons have wave-like and particle-like properties – This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. – Each orbital at discrete energy level determined by quantum numbers . Quantum numbers Designation n = principal (energy level) - size K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) - shape s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,…, n -1) m l = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (- l to + l ) m s = spin ½, -½ 4 Chapter 2 -
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Electron Energy States 5 Chapter 2 - Increasing energy n=1 n=2 n=3 n=4 1s 2s 3s 2p 3p 4s 4p 3d Adapted from Fig. 2.5, Callister 6e. Max # of electrons on the shell n : N=2n 2 For n=2, l = 0, 1 (2 subshells: s, p ) n =1, N = 2 n =2, N =8 n =3, N =18 For n=3, l = 0, 1, 2 (3 subshells: s, p, d ) For n=4, l = 0, 1, 2, 3 ( s, p, d, f ) For l = 0 (subshell s ) m l = 0 ( 1 energy state) For l = 1 (subshell p ) m l = -1,0,1 ( 3 energy states) For l = 2 (subshell d ) m l = -2,-1,0,1,2 ( 5 energy states)
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6 Chapter 2 - Electronic Configurations ex: Fe - atomic # = 26 valence electrons Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister 7e.
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Chapter 2- Bonding and properties - CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND...

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