History 163A - Spring 1997 - Jay - Midterm

History 163A - Spring 1997 - Jay - Midterm - 11/17/2000 FRI...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/17/2000 FRI 17:47 FAX 6434330 MOFFITT LIBRARY 001 History 163A Midterm Spring, 1997 Mr. Jay Part One: Identify and write a paragraph on the significance of four of the following quotations: a) "You see, Sir, that in this enlightened age I am bold enough to confess, that we are generally men of untaught feelings; that instead of casting away all our old prejudices, we cherish them to a very considerable degree, and, to take more shame to ourselves, we cherish them because they are prejudices; and the longer they have lasted, and the more generally they have prevailed, we cherish them....Prejudice renders a man's virtue his habit; and not a series of unconnected acts. Through just prejudice, his duty becomes a part of his nature.‘I b) "Then how did Abraham exist? He had faith. That is the paradox that keeps him at the extremity and which he cannot make clear to anyone else, for the paradox is that he puts himself as the single individual in an absolute relation to the absolute. Is he justified? His justification is, once again, the paradox; for if he is the paradox it is not by virtue of being anything universal, but of being the particular." c) "Self—consciousness exists in itself and for itself, in that, and by the fact that it exists for another self—consciousness; that is to say, it is only by being acknowledged or ‘recognized.'“ d) "Enlightenment is man's leaving his self-caused immaturity. Immaturity is the incapacity to use one's intelligence without the guidance of another. Such immaturity is self-caused if it is not caused by lack of intelligence, but by lack of determination and courage to use one's intelligence without being guided by another. Sapere aude! Have the courage to use your own intelligence is therefore the motto of the enlightenment." e) "...it must here be obvious at once that only the German--the original man, who has not become dead in an arbitrary organization— —really has a people and is entitled to count as one, and that he alone is capable of real and rational love for his nation." f) "Saved is the spirit kingdom's flower From evil and the grave: ‘Who ever strives with all his power, We are allowed to save.' And if, besides, supernal love Responded to his plight, The blessed host comes from above To greet him in delight. g) "Novels, music, poetry, and gallantry, all tend to make women the creatures of sensation, and their character is formed in the mould of folly during the time they are acquiring accomplishments, 11/17/2000 FRI 17:48 FAX 6434330 MOFFITT LIBRARY the only improvement they are excited, by their station in society, to acquire. This overstretched sensibility naturally relaxes the other powers of the mind, and prevents intellect from attaining that sovereignty it ought to attain to render a rational creature useful to others, and content with its own station..." Part Two: Write an essay answering pg; of the following questions: 1) One of the most vexed issues we have encountered in the course is the proper way to define subjectivity. Is “the subject“ active autonomous or heteronomous, individual or collective, split or unified, universal or particular, rational or passionate, isolated or situated intersubjectively? Discuss the contributions of three of the following thinkers to this question: Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Wollstonecraft, Hegel, Fichte and Kierkegaard. 2) In its more optimistic moods, the Enlightenment favored a notion of historical progress that projected a steady improvement of the human race. How much of this faith survived into the first half of the 19th Century? What was the response of the Romantics to the idea of progress? How did it get transformed by German Idealists, such as Kant. Fichte and Hegel? Do Goethe and Kierkegaard reveal an awareness of the "costs" of progress? 3) Despite the "pagan" and skeptical tone of much of the Enlightenment, especially in France, religion remained.an important issue for intellectuals well into the 19th Century. What was its role in the thought of three of the following thinkers: Rousseau, Goethe, Hegel, or Kierkegaard. 4) Tom Paine's The Age of Reason has sometimes been seenfproviding the motto of the Enlightenment as a whole. How confident in the power of reason to change the world were three of the following theorists: Rousseau, Kant, Wollstonecraft, Burke and Hegel? with what definitions of reason Were they operating? 002 ...
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course HISTORY 163A taught by Professor Jay during the Spring '08 term at Berkeley.

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