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History 163A - Spring 1991 - Jay - Midterm

History 163A - Spring 1991 - Jay - Midterm - FRI 18:09 FAX...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/17/2000 FRI 18:09 FAX 6434330 MOFFIVTT LIBRARY 001 History 163A Midterm Spring, 1991 _ Mr. Jay Part One: Identify and write a paragraph on the significance of four of the following quotations: 1) "It follows from what has gone before that the general will is always right and tends to the public advantage; but it does not follow that the deliberations of the people is always equally correct. Our will is always for our own good, but we do not always see what that is; the people is never corrupted, but its is often deceived, and on such occasions only does it seem to will what is bad." 2) "So let there appear before you at last in complete cleamess what we have meant by Germans, as we have so far described them. The true criterion is this: do you believe in something absolutely primary and original in man himself, in freedom, in endless improvement, in the eternal progress of our race, or do you not believe in all this, but rather imagine that you clearly perceive and comprehend that the opposite of all this takes place?" 3) "You are aware of only one unrest; Oh, never learn to know the other! Two souls, alas, are dwelling in my breast, And one is striving to forsake its brother. Unto the world in grossly loving zest, With clinging tendrils, one adheres; The other rises forcibly in quest of Of rarefied ancestral spheres." 4) "The history of mankind could be viewed on the whole as the realization of a hidden plan of nature in order to bring about an internally-and for this purpose also externally-- perfect constitution; since this is the only state in which nature can develop all faculties of mankind. 5) "Often one has tried to establish a conflict between reason and religion, just as between Eligign and world; but when studied more closely, this is merely a distinction. Reason, generally speaking, is the essence of the spirit, the divine as well as the human. The difference between religion and world is merely this, that religion is reason in mind and heart, that it is a temple of imagined truth and freedom in God; the state according to this same reason is a temple of human freedom in the knowledge of and the will for the actual reality, the content of which may itself be called divine." 6) “Educate women like men,’ says Rousseau, ’and the more they resemble our sex the less power they will have over us.’ This is the very point I aim at. I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves." 11/17/2000 FRI 18:10 FAX 6434330 MOFFITT LIBRARY 002 7) "Society is indeed a contract. Subordinate contracts for objects of mere occasional interest may be dissolved at pleasure—but the state ought not to be considered as nothing better than a partnership agreement...to be dissolved by the fancy of the parties....It is a partnership in all science; a partnership in all art; a partnership in every virtue, and in all perfection. As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained in many generations, it becomes a partnership not only between those who are living, but between those who are living, those who are dead, and those who are to be born. Each contract of each particular state is but a clause in the great primaeval contract of eternal society, linking the lower with the higher natures, connecting the visible and invisible world..." 8) "Now the story of Abraham contains just such a teleological suspension of the ethical....Abraham represents faith, and that faith finds its proper expression in him whose life is not only the most paradoxical conceivable, but so paradoxical that it simply cannot be thought." Part Two: Write an essay on one of the following questions: 1) Although the Enlightenment valued cosmopolitan universalism and the Romantics often prefered nationalist or regional particularism, both can be said to have varied according to their location. What were the major differences between the English, French and German Enlightenments and their comparable Romantic movements? In your answer, consider such issues as their attitudes towards religion and politics, as well as the differences in their temporal development. 2) An important issue troubling many of the thinkers we have examined during the course concerns the value of action and the will. How do three of the following thinkers contribute to the discussion of this theme: Rousseau, Kant, Goethe, Fichte, Hegel, Burke or Kierkegaard? 3) Intellectual historians often probe the relationship between the work of a thinker and his or her life. How valuable is such an approach to the following figures: Rousseau, Kierkegaard Kant, Wollstonecraft, Burke and Hegel? What limitations does such an approach have? 4) Kant’s notion of "asocial sociability" and Hegel’s idea of the "cunning of reason" share a common premise: that conflict and suffering may be functional in the service of higher goals. How do they justify their Optimism? Would Goethe’s Faust provide evidence that such theodicies are right or wrong? From whose point of view are or should such judgments be made? ...
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