Course hero - The Name Class Date Subject SSI 102 E1 World...

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The Name: Class: SSI 102 E1 World History 11 Date: 04/03/19 Subject: Summary of Chapter 22 (LAND EMPIRES IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM 1800-1870) THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE The Ottoman Empire lost much of its power to provincial governors, military commanders, ethnic leaders, and bandit chiefs. This lapse resulted in Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, a fundamentalist from Arabia to take control of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and prevented the sultan of organizing the annual pilgrimage. Egypt and the Napoleonic Example : Napoleon invaded Egypt in May 1798, and defeated the Mamluk forces he encountered there. Fifteen months later, after a series of military defeats, Napoleon returned to France, seized power, and made himself emperor. His generals had little hope of holding on to power and, in 1801, agreed to withdraw. Muhammad Ali emerged as the winner in the power struggle. Muhammad Ali used many French practices in an effort to build up the new Egyptian state. He established schools to train modern military officers and build factories to supply his new army. In the 1830, Muhammad Ali’s son Ibrahim invaded Syria and started a similar set of reforms there. European military pressure pressured Muhammad Ali to withdraw to the present-day borders of Egypt and Israel. Muhammad Ali remained Egypt’s ruler until 1849, and his family held onto power until 1952. Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807–1853: Sultan Selim III introduced reforms at the end of the eighteenth century to strengthen the military and the central government and to standardize taxation and land tenure. The new reforms angered the opposition of Janissaries, the nobility, and the ulama. Problem started between the Sultanate and the Janissaries that sparked a Janissary revolt in Serbia in 1805. Serbian peasants helped to defeat the Janissary uprising and went on to make
Serbia independent of the Ottoman Empire. Selim suspended his reform program in 1806, too late to prevent a massive military uprising in Istanbul in which Selim was captured and executed before reform forces could retake the capital. The Greeks gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. Britain, France, and Russia assisted the Greeks in their struggle for independence and regarded the Greek victory as a triumph of European civilization. Sultan Mahmud II believed that the loss of Greece indicated a profound weakness in Ottoman military and financial organization. Mahmud created a new army corps, and eliminated the Janissaries, and reduced the political power of the religious elite. Mahmud’s secularizing reform program was further articulated in the Tanzimat (restructuring) reforms initiated by his successor Abdul Mejid in 1839. Military cadets were sent to France and Germany for training, and reform of Ottoman military education became the model for general educational reforms in which foreign subjects were taught, foreign instructors were employed, and French became the preferred language in all advanced scientific and professional training.

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