NEO IAS 0484-3190310, 9446331522, 9446334122 Page 1 | | | ANCIENT INDIAN HISTORY MODULE 2 THE INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION The Indus valley civilization, a bronze age civilization, like the other three civilizations of the ancient worldwhich developed along the river banks (Egyptian on Nile, Mesopotamian on Tigris–Euphrates, Chinese on the Yangtze), had developed on banks of Indus and several other nearby rivers such as Ghaggar– Hakra, the now dried up Saraswati and the Drasadvati. The centre of this civilization was in Sind and Punjaband from there, it spread in all directions. This civilizationwas largest of the four ancient urban civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, South Asia and China and covered an area of around 1.3 million square kilometres. This area is triangular in shape and no other ancient civilization was extended to such a large area. According to recent researches,The Indus valley civilisation broadly covered a time span from around 8000 BC to 1200 BC. THE RECENT BHIRRANA DISCOVERY According to new research, by a team ofresearchersfrom prestigious Indian institutesand Archaeological Survey of India (ASI),it’s discovered that the Bronze-Age civilizationwhich spreads across parts of Pakistan andIndia, may be 8000 years old, taking root well before the Egyptian (7000BC to 3000BC) and Mesopotamian (6500BC to 3100BC) civilizations. The researchers used carbon dating techniqueson animalremainsand pottery fragmentsfrom the Bhirrana sitein Indiato reach this conclusion. Bhirrana is now considered the oldestdiscovered Indus valley site, with some of the oldest mounds dating back to 7500 B.C.E. Previously, Mehrgarh, in the Pakistani province of Baluchistan, dating from around 7000 B.C.E. was considered the oldest Indus valley site. GEOGRAPHICAL IDENTITY OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILISATION The Indus Valley Civilization covered most of Pakistanand parts of north-western India, Afghanistanand Iran, extending fromJammu in the north to Narmada estuary in the south and from the Makran coast of Baluchistan in the west to Meerut in the north east. The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egyptand Peru, with rich agricultural landsbeing surrounded by highlands, desert, and ocean. It flourished in the basins of the Indus Riverand the now dried up Sarasvati River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River. The course of the Indus River in the third millennium BC was more south-easterly and it flowed into the Arabian Sea in the vicinity of the Rann of Kutch. Coastal settlements extended from Sutko DorinWestern Baluchistanto Lothal in Gujarat.