Uruk University college Department of DentestryLocation of Inferior Dental Canal According to Dental Landmark Using OPG Student : 2019AD
Abstract Orthopan ( panoramic radiograph, digital orthopantomograph ) is the most frequent image reproducing the entirety of the maxillofacial region, including the temporomandibular joints (TMJ). It can also be made in digital form on a CD (digital panoramic radiograph) to enable viewing on a computer screen. All panoramic images are made with digital CCD technology and show all the captured structures with high precision, which allows for spotting more details and making a better diagnostic application. Optimal imaging geometry creates a precise image of the teeth of the upper and lower jaw without distortion. It clearly shows pathological changes around the roots of all teeth, the state of the bone in case of periodontitis and cavity lesions on the teeth. Diagnostically speaking, it is the most important image for a timely detection of the diseases of the teeth and surrounding structures. Orthopan shows at the same time teeth of the upper and lower jaws with surrounding tissues and structures. It is considered a basic diagnostic method in stomatology and is often developed as orientation image at the first examination. It is required in prosthetic treatment planning, in orthodontics and oral surgery when planning implant placement or removal of impacted teeth. Orthopan can be applied to the children because it is adapted small amount of radiation. The only group that is not supposed to take orthopan are pregnant women, especially in the first quarter.
The inferior alveolar nerve block is the most common injection technique used in dentistry and many modifications of the conventional nerve block have been recently described in the literature. Selecting the best technique by the dentist or surgeon depends on many factors including the success rate and complications related to the selected technique. Dentists should be aware of the available current modifications of the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in order to effectively choose between these modifications. Some operators may encounter difficulty in identifying the anatomical landmarks which are useful in applying the inferior alveolar nerve block and rely instead on assumptions as to where the needle should be positioned. Such assumptions can lead to failure and the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block has been reported to be 20-25% which is considered very high. In this basic review, the anatomical details of the inferior alveolar nerve will be given together with a description of its both conventional and modified blocking techniques; in addition, an overview of the complications which may result from the application of this important technique will be mentioned.