ANATOMY EXAM 2

ANATOMY EXAM 2 - ANATOMY EXAM 2: TISSUES 1. Tissues- Groups...

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ANATOMY EXAM 2: TISSUES 1. Tissues- Groups of cells; same structure, produce same intercellular substance and have the same function a. General Types- Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscular b. Epithelial Tissues i. General Characteristics 1. Intercellular Substances a. Limited quantity b. Very densely packed 2. Basement Membrane- a chemical structure a. Composed of glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and collagen fibers that are made from epithelium and connective tissue below epithelium 3. Blood Vessels- NONE in epithelium a. To get rid of nutrient waste products, they have to diffuse from and or to blood vessels in connective tissues 4. Nerve Endings- ALMOST NONE a. What nerve endings there are, are found in the stratum basal of the skins’ epidermis 5. High Regenerative Capacity- if damaged a. Repairs by mitosis b. Epidermal cells- 28 days c. Intestinal epithelium- 5-7 days d. Old dead cells are replaced by new ones 6. Actual/Potential Free Surfaces a. Actual Free Surface (apical surface/no other tissue contacts) 1. Skin epidermis 2. Inner lining of: 1. gastro-intestinal tract 2. respiratory tract 3. excretory tract 4. reproductive tract-hollow (has a hollow center place) 3. Closed Body Cavity Surfaces 1. Thoracic, Abdominal, and Pelvic b. Potential Free Surface 1. Located at inner lining of heart and blood vessels 1. in contact w/ blood (tissue) 2. if blood is lacking in a vessel, that makes it an actual free surface 7. ALL glands are developed from epithelia ii. Functions 1. Protection of Underlying Tissues
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a. Skin Epidermis-protects underlying muscle to a certain extent b. Respiratory Epithelium 1. Contains goblet cells; produce mucus (when you’re sick), mucus is pushed up by the cilia 2. Respiratory Epithelium is ciliated c. Absorption- for Epithelial Cells w/ Microvilli 1. Small Intestine: digested nutrients to blood 2. Kidney Tubule Cells: Na, K, water, glucose, amino acids 1. filtered into foaming urine 2. reabsorb from foaming urine 3. return to blood 4. Filtration BEFORE reabsorption 3. Filtration- for Endothelial (lining of heart and blood vessels) cells of blood 1. Capillaries are 1 cell thick 2. Small molecules can pass in capillary and through holes and pass blood to tissue spaces in large molecules 1. LARGE MOLECULES DO NOT FILTER 4. Secretion- gland secretes onto actual free surface OR gland secretes into blood iii. Classification of Epithelium 1. Number of Cell Layers a. 1= SIMPLE b. 2+=STRATIFIED 2. Shape of Cells a. FLAT=SQUAMOUS b. CUBE=CUBOIDAL c. TALLER THAN BASE=COLUMNAR d. Stratified Epithelium: look for cell shape to be layered iv. Specific Types of Epithelia 1. Simple Squamous Epithelium a. Alveoli of Lung 1. Alveoli are one cell layer thick; capillaries in walls; oxygen/carbon dioxide in/out b. Walls of Capillaries 1. endothelium c. Inner Lining of Closed Body Cavities 1. Mesotheleum 2. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium a. Found Where: 1. Walls of Kidney Tubules 2. Outer Layer of Lenseye
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3. Secretory Portion 1. Thyroid Gland
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course BIOL 20204 taught by Professor Barcellona during the Fall '07 term at TCU.

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ANATOMY EXAM 2 - ANATOMY EXAM 2: TISSUES 1. Tissues- Groups...

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