Skeletal System Notes

Skeletal System Notes - 1. Skeletal System- All Bones of...

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1. Skeletal System- All Bones of the Body + Articulations a. Bone Tissues i. Components 1. Mature Cells (osteocytes) a. Begin as osteoblasts i. Osteoblasts make intercellular substance (outside cells) ii. Result: cells in lacunae surrounded by intercellular substance are now called osteocytes b. Intercellular Substance- collagen + matrix i. Fibers- collagen ONLY ii. Matrix- hard material outside of lacunae 1. Organic- osteoid or ossein with glycoproteins/ proteoglycans 2. Inorganic- hydroxyl apatite crystals a. Calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide i. Both attach to collagen ii. Harden organic matrix b. Structural Types of Bone- refers to how bone is made i. Spongy, Cancellous, or Trabecular Bone 1. Trabeculae plates of flattened bone- aren’t always flat, maybe slightly curved a. Few linear lamellae (layers of hard tissue; bony matrix) b. Spaces filled w/ red bone marrow i. Site of production ii. Red and white blood cells/ platelets ii. Compact Bone (Cortical Bone) of Long Bone 1. Several lamellae present in concentric circles (Saladin 219) a. Contributes to strength iii. Comparison of Spongy and Compact bone 1. Spongy Bone Lamellae- curved, linear, present in layers that form trabeculae 2. Compact Bone Lamellae in concentric circles c. Microscopic Structure of Compact Bone- Osteon i. Haversian System 1. Haversian Canal- space in center of osteon a. Contains: blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerve fibers i. Has a lining-endosteum (membrane) 2. Lamellae- layers of hardened bony matrix a. Present in concentric circles b. Have to alternate with lacunae that have osteocytes (bone cells) b/c they produce the lamellae 3. Lacunae containing osteocytes 4. Cannaliculi- fine tubes a. Cross lamellae and interconnect lacunae together
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Cannaliculi in 1 st , lamellae open into Haversian Canal c. Extracellular fluid distributed to all lacunae by cannaliculi d. Functions of Cannaliculi: i. Provide nutrients and remove waste products from osteocytes ii. Without cannaliculi, osteocytes wouldn’t survive 5. Volkmann’s Canal- in compact bone a. Run horizontally; connect haversian canals to one another b. Lined by endosteum (membrane) c. Allows for the transmission of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerve fivers from the surface of long bones to the bone marrow cavity 6. Outer Circumferential Lamellae- located at outer surface of long bone 7. Interstitial Lamellae (not illustrated)- fill in space between osteons 8. Inner Circumferential Lamellae (not illustrated)- around edge of bone marrow cavity d. Classification of Bones (based on shape)- gross way of doing it i. Long- length greater than width 1. Bones of Extremities a. Humerus b. Metacarpals c. Phalanges d. Radius e. Ulna f. Fibula g. Tibia h. Metatarsals ii. Short- little difference between length and width 1. Carpals 2. Tarsals (except calcaneous) iii. Flat- 2 parallel plates of compact bone separated by spongy bone 1. Lacrimal 2. Nasal 3. Frontal Skull 4. Parietal 5. Occipital 6. Zygomatic 7. Scapula
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course BIOL 20204 taught by Professor Barcellona during the Fall '07 term at TCU.

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Skeletal System Notes - 1. Skeletal System- All Bones of...

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