Raimi Albee Mr. Wright AP Lang, Per.2 15 December 2017 Annotated Glossary 1. Logical Fallacies Definition: An error in reasoning that renders an argument invalid. Example: many different ways to defend your argument including the different kinds below. Function: To give the writer help in arguing their point and getting more evidence and a variety of options to be able to use in doing so. 2. Ad Hominem Definition: directed against a person rather than the position they are maintaining. Example: “He’s not a great athlete; he’s a fraud, a cheat and a liar. That’s why not everybody is ‘happy for Lance.'” (velonews) Function: They went into the athlete as a person and they didn't continue their argument about him as an athlete. The function is to go directly to critiquing the person. 3. Argument From Authority Definition: Using authority as your evidence, when authority has nothing to do with the facts that are relevant. Example: “ It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife.”(pride and prejudice) Function: This argument is basically the whole book and the function is to use the authority to drive your argument. 4. Appeal to Ignorance Definition: a fallacy in informal logic. Example: Joe McCarthy] announced that he had penetrated "Truman's iron curtain of secrecy" and that he proposed forthwith to present 81 cases… Cases of exactly what? "I am only giving the Senate," he said, "cases in which it is clear there is a definite Communist connection… persons whom I consider to be Communists in the State Department." … Of Case 40, he said, "I do not have much information on this except the general statement of the agency…that there is nothing in the files to disprove his Communist connections." 3 Function: There was a lack of evidence, and in this case Joe was arguing for the conclusion. The function of this is to be able to make strong points even when there is a lack of evidence. 5.Begging the Question: Definition: The claim made is based on the truth of the premise Example: It says in the Bible that God exists. Since the Bible is God's word, and God never speaks falsely, then everything in the Bible must be true. So, God must exist. Function: This example shows the build up to the conclusion and how the writer uses sentence after sentence to connect them all and prove a point. The function is reasoning .
6.Hasty Generalization Definition: A broad claim is based on limited evidence. Example: “I met some students from Fort Riley yesterday, who were very polite. I think all children from that area must be well-behaved.” Michelle Obama Function: She is giving the whole group the benefit of the doubt because she happened tot alk to a few of them.
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