DANIELA ORTEGA - Hen_Roar_20s_notes.pdf - u2022u202f...

This preview shows page 1 out of 5 pages.

Unformatted text preview: • 2/4/16 APUSH 1919-1929 ROARING TWENTIES REVIEWED! American Pageant (Kennedy) Chapter 31 American History (Brinkley) Chapter 22 America’s History (Henretta) Chapter 22 -Red Scare. The Red Scare was a time of elevated dread of radicalism in the United States after World War I. Work agitation, the development of bolshevism universally, Fear following World War I •  Communist Party came to power in Russia in 1917. “Bolshevik Rev.” •  Strikes occur in 1919. Many shut down important industries –  Steel Strike of 1919 –  Boston Police Strike of 1919 •  Race riots occur in American cities due to resentment over competition for jobs & housing •  Bombings occur in 8 American cities •  Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer led a series of raids against suspected radicals and a progression of bombings set off various government assaults on speculated radicals, regularly disregarding respectful freedoms. - The Red Scare prompted a scope of activities that had a significant and suffering impact on U.S. government and society. Administrative representatives were dissected to decide if they were adequately faithful to the legislature, and the House Un-American Activities Committee, just as U.S. Representative Joseph R. McCarthy, examined claims of rebellious components in the legislature and the Hollywood film industry. -HUAC's examinations much of the time concentrated on uncovering Communists working inside the government or rebellious components working in the Hollywood film industry, and the board of trustees increased new energy following World War II, as the Cold War started. Under tension from the negative exposure focused on their studios, motion picture officials made boycotts that banned speculated radicals from business; comparative records were likewise settled in different enterprises. RISE OF NATIVISM •  Palmer Raids led to mass arrest of socialist, anarchist, union organizers, or other suspected radicals •  Continued hatred toward “new immigrants” •  Quota Act of 1921: limited immigration # to 3% of those living in U.S. as of 1910 •  National Quota Act of 1924: Set quota at 2% of the immigrants in the U.S. in 1890 –  Intended to limit the “new immigrants” from southern/ eastern Europe –  Severely restricted Asian immigrant- No Japanese immigration at all •  Unrestricted immigration from Western Hemisphere -In the before the war years, the United States got a large number of workers to a great extent from Ireland and the German states. The Industrial Revolution and fast urbanization likewise started in these equivalent years. Thus, the United States encountered an emotional and energetic change to its economy yet in addition to its social creation. - In the United States' first evaluation in 1790, just about 5% of Americans lived in urban zones. By 1860 that number expanded to practically 20%. While a portion of this urban development originated from household movement, a lot of this populace increment originated from migration. Between the 1820s and the 1860s, more than 300,000 individuals went to the United States every year and by 1860, 20% of the American populace was remote conceived. -Likewise, outsiders carried with them various dialects, customs, and strict practices. Irish workers overwhelmingly had a place with the Roman Catholic Church−a • 1 confidence that had since quite a while ago confronted doubt and abuse in a predominantly Protestant America. - Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian settlers living in Massachusetts at • 2/4/16 the turn of the twentieth century. They drove generally straightforward, hands on lives. Sacco was a shoemaker and Vanzetti was an angler. Neither had a criminal record. Their greatest wrongdoing would be that they were socialists and work coordinators one after another where one's governmental issues could get them murdered in the United States. Sacco and Vanzetti Case •  Sacco and Vanzetti –  Italian immigrants who were charged with robbery and murder in 1921 – Found guilty and sentenced to death –  Trial demonstrated the tensions of the era •  Italian immigrants •  Anarchist •  World War I draft dodgers –  Both men executed in 1927 - Sacco and Vanzetti's cases of out of line, harsh treatment were additionally proved when one of the genuine culprits of the wrongdoing admitted in 1925 and named his cobackstabbers; Sacco and Vanzetti were not among those named. - In any case, the specialists wouldn't explore the cases. Despite the fact that Moore's technique of featuring Sacco and Vanzetti's radicalism attempted to put forth the defense a national news thing, it might have prompted the judge and jury feeling less thoughtful for the two, eventually prompting their conviction. - As the Klan showcased its message across the country through paid "kleagles" and Klan participation moved into the millions, numerous gatherings came to look like network congenial associations as opposed to groups of covered nightriders. They supported open picnics, march buoys, and free speakers (and for the individuals, obviously, mystery evening time cross-burnings), and they advanced Klan sympathizers Resurgence of KKK •  KKK broadens its influence in the 1920s –  Expands into the Midwest –  Hatred toward immigrants, Catholics, radicals, etc. •  Pro KKK film “Birth of a Nation” (1915) was popular in theaters •  Branded itself as a patriotic organization –  Support amongst white Protestants in small cities and towns •  Exerted tremendous political influence for political office. - In the pretense of securing network ethics, it extended its casualties of vigilante equity to those it regarded criminals, racketeers, unfaithful life partners, degenerate lawmakers, and so on.— all with no judge or jury past the nearby mystery "klavern." Whippings, tar-and-featherings, dangers of brutality, and for dark exploited people, lynching, became basic practice in certain districts of the South, Southwest, and Midwest (Indiana was the fortress of Klan power in the decade). - The recovery of the KKK in the mid twentieth century mirrored a general public battling with the impacts of industrialization, urbanization, and movement. Klan parts in major urban zones extended the same number of white Americans turned out to be severe and angry about migration from Asia and Eastern Europe. Klansmen whined that these settlers were removing occupations from whites and weakening the envisioned "racial immaculateness" of American culture. •  1920 is the first time a majority of Americans live in urban areas •  Economic prosperity: ROAR! –  Tremendous growth in the stock market •  Buying “on margin” •  Investment based upon speculation •  Mass consumption economy: large number of new affordable consumer goods available –  Electricity in homes led to increased demand for consumer appliances •  Fueling the consumerism was buying goods on credit (installment plan: “possess today and pay tomorrow”) •  Advertising industry: manipulate consumer demand - Once an extravagance thing, autos became inside reach for some more buyers as vehicle makers massed produce cars. The most huge development of this time was Henry Ford's Model T Ford, which made vehicle proprietorship accessible to the normal American. - He altered modern work by consummating the mechanical production system, which empowered him to bring down the Model T's cost from $850 in 1908 to $300 in 1924, making vehicle proprietorship a genuine probability for a huge portion of the populace. Before long, individuals could purchase utilized Model Ts for as meager as five dollars, permitting understudies and others with low livelihoods to appreciate the opportunity and portability of vehicle proprietorship. - The 1920s saw a change in ground transportation as well as significant changes in air travel. By the mid-1920s, men—just as some spearheading ladies like the African American trick pilot Bessie Coleman—had been flying for two decades. Yet, there remained questions about the appropriateness of planes for long-separation• 2 travel. -Many of the new gadgets vowed to give ladies—who kept on having essential obligation regarding housework—more chances to step out of the home and grow their • 2/4/16 points of view. Unexpectedly, be that as it may, these work sparing gadgets would in general increment the remaining task at hand for ladies by increasing the expectations of household work. - Despite the way that the guarantee of more recreation time went to a great extent Transportation Changes •  Frederick Taylor’s principles of scientific management increased productivity •  Cars become affordable for the average American (Model T) –  Henry Ford’s assembly line •  Growth of other industries (steel, rubber, gasoline, highway construction, etc.) •  Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic •  Radio makes him an instant celebrity unfulfilled, the draw of innovation as the passage to an increasingly loosened up way of life persevered. This suffering dream was a demonstration of the impact of another developing industry: publicizing. The mass utilization of vehicles, family unit apparatuses, prepared to-wear garments, and handled nourishments relied vigorously upon crafted by publicists. Magazines like Ladies' Home Journal and The Saturday Evening Post became vehicles to interface sponsors with white collar class shoppers. - The sequential construction system helped Ford lessen work costs inside the creation procedure by moving the item starting with one group of laborers then onto the next, every one of them finishing a stage so basic that laborers must be—in Ford's words —"no more intelligent than a bull." Ford's dependence on the mechanical production system set accentuation on proficiency over craftsmanship. -Radio was used by American free entreprise for advertising commercials, while it was a government- owned system in Europe. Mass Media: Radio and Movies •  Nov. 1920 first radio broadcast out of Pittsburgh announces election of Harding •  Radio tied the nation together by providing shared experiences •  Rise of the movie industry (especially in Hollywood) •  “The Jazz Singer” (1927) becomes the first “talkie” •  Celebrity culture of the 1920s –  Nationally known figures as a result of the wide reach of radio and movies Gender in the 1920s •  During the decade existing social customs were challenged •  Jazz music, dancing, drinking bootleg liquor, and other challenges to traditional values –  Labor saving devices changed role of homemakers for some women •  Flappers became the symbol of this more independent lifestyle •  Margaret Sanger took things a step further with her advocacy of birth control -1) Radio encouraged people to stay at home 2)Sports were further stimulated 3) Politicians's speech could be heard by millions now. 4) Various regions heard voices with standard accent. 5) Radio programs were sponsored by manufactureres and distributors of brand-name products. 6) Radio played music of famous artists and orchestras. -Pittsburgh radio station KDKA broadcatesed the naews of the Harding landslide. - A lady of 1920 would be amazed to realize that she would be recognized as "another lady." Many changes would enter her life in the following ten years. Critical changes for ladies occurred in governmental issues, the home, the working environment, and in training. Some were the aftereffects of laws passed, many came about because of recently created advancements, and all had to do with changing dispositions toward the spot of ladies in the public arena. - Though delayed to utilize their recently won democratic rights, before the decade's over, ladies were spoken to on neighborhood, state, and national political panels and were affecting the political plan of the central government. More accentuation started to be put on social improvement, for example, defensive laws for kid work and jail change. - Urban ladies found that power and plumbing made housework extraordinary, and frequently simpler, with electrically run vacuum cleaners, irons, and clothes washers. Power implied that individuals could remain up later around evening time, since electric lights were more proficient than lamp fuel lights and candles. Indoor pipes brought water inside and acquainted another live with clean—the restroom- • 3 - On July 10, the Monkey Trial got in progress, and inside a couple of days swarms of onlookers and correspondents had dropped on Dayton as ministers set up recovery tents • 2/4/16 along the city's central avenue to keep the loyal worked up. Inside the Rhea County Courthouse, the resistance endured early difficulties when Judge John Raulston administered against their endeavor to demonstrate the law unlawful and afterward would not end his act of opening every day's procedure with petition. Fundamentalism & the Scopes Monkey Trial •  The decade saw a battle between the values of the modernizing cities and the traditional values of rural areas •  Fundamentalist believed every word in the bible should be considered literally true. •  Radio preachers such as Billy Sunday spoke out against drinking, dancing, jazz, gambling, etc. •  ACLU sought to challenge law in Tenn. that outlawed teaching of evolution –  John Scopes arrested for teaching evolution in 1925 •  Entire world follows the trial by listening on the radio –  Prosecutor: Religious fundamentalist William Jennings Bryan –  Defense: Clarence Darrow •  Scopes convicted (gets off on a technicality)- but trial demonstrated tensions between modern and traditional religious values of the 1920s. - before a few thousand observers in the outdoors, Darrow changed his strategies and as his sole observer called Bryan trying to ruin his exacting understanding of the Bible. In a looking through assessment, Bryan was exposed to serious derision and compelled to offer oblivious and conflicting expressions to the diversion of the group. - Although Bryan had won the case, he had been freely mortified and his fundamentalist convictions had been disrespected. After five days, on July 26, he set down for a Sunday evening rest and never woke up. - Prohibition was confirmed by the states on January 16, 1919 and authoritatively became effective on January 17, 1920, with the section of the Volstead Act. Notwithstanding the new enactment, Prohibition was hard to authorize. The expansion of the illicit generation and offer of alcohol (known as "bootlegging"), the multiplication of speakeasies (unlawful drinking spots) and the going with ascend in PROHIBITION group brutality and different wrongdoings prompted melting away help for Prohibition before the finish of •  18th amendment ratified in 1919: prohibited the manufacture & sale of alcoholic beverages •  Volstead Act was the federal law enforcing the amendment •  Fierce opposition, especially in large cities •  Bootleg liquor was served at speakeasies •  Understaffed law enforcement and widespread corruption •  Rise of organized crime –  Al Capone in Chicago the 1920s. - By the turn of the century, restraint social orders were a typical installation in networks over the United States. Ladies assumed a solid job in the moderation development, as liquor was viewed as a damaging power in families and relationships. In 1906, another influx of assaults started on the offer of alcohol, drove by the Anti-Saloon League (built up in 1893) and driven by a response to urban development, just as the ascent of outreaching Protestantism and its perspective on cantina culture as degenerate and corrupt. - Ratified on January 16, 1919, the eighteenth Amendment became effective a year later, by which time no less than 33 states had just instituted their own preclusion enactment. In October 1919, Congress set forth the National Prohibition Act, which gave rules to the government authorization of Prohibition. Advocated by Representative Andrew Volstead of Minnesota, the administrator of the House Judiciary Committee, the enactment was all the more regularly known as the Volstead Act BLACK AMERICA IN THE 1920s: Did the decade roar? -In the 1920s, the extraordinary relocation of blacks from the provincial South to the •  Great Migration had brought numerous African Americans into northern cities –  Spread of jazz music out of New Orleans •  Harlem in NYC was the cultural center of black America •  Harlem Renaissance led by writers Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, and jazz artists Louis Armstrong –  Idea of “New Negro”- racial pride •  Marcus Garvey founded the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) –  Called for African Americans to go “back to Africa” (separatism) –  Promoted black pride, black owned businesses urban North started an African American social renaissance that took its name from the New York City neighborhood of Harlem yet turned into an across the board development in urban areas all through the North and West. Otherwise called the Black Renaissance or the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance denoted the first occasion when that standard distributers and pundits turned their consideration genuinely to African American writing, music, workmanship and legislative issues. - Born in Jamaica, the dark patriot pioneer Marcus Garvey established his Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) there in 1914; after two years, he carried it to the United States. Garvey spoke to the racial pride of African Americans, magnifying obscurity as solid and excellent. - Their lone expectation, as indicated by him, was to escape America and come back to Africa to fabricate their very own nation. After an ineffective intrigue to the League of Nations to settle a province in Africa and bombed dealings with Liberia, Garvey • 4 reported the arrangement of the Empire of Africa in 1921, with himself as temporary president. - The age was "lost" as in its acquired qualities were never again important in the after war world and due to its otherworldly distance from a United States that, lounging • 2/4/16 under Pres. Warren G. Harding's "back to commonality" approach, appeared to its individuals to be miserably commonplace, materialistic, and genuinely desolate. The term grasps Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, John Dos Passos, E.E. Cummings, Archibald MacLeish, Hart Crane, and numerous different essayists who made Paris the LOST GENERATION focal point of their artistic exercises during the 1920s. They were never an artistic school. •  “Lost Generation” writers: F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest - In the 1930s, as these journalists turned in various ways, their works lost Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis the particular stamp of the after war time frame. The last delegate works of •  Criticized different aspects of the the time were Fitzgerald's Tender Is the Night (1934) and Dos Passos' The decade: Big Money (1936). – Why did we fight World War I – Small town values – Fundamentalist religious views – Materialism of the decade - In the fallout of the war there emerged a gathering of youthful people known as the "Lost Generation." The term was instituted from something Gertrude Stein saw the proprietor of a carport saying to his young representative, which Hemingway later utilized as an epigraph to his novel The Sun Also Rises (1926): "You are every one of the a lost age." This allegation alluded to the absence of direction or drive coming about because of the terrible bafflement felt by the individuals who grew up and survived the war, and were then in their twenties and thirties. • 5 ...
View Full Document

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture