Test Two Vocabulary

Test Two Vocabulary - Test Two Vocabulary Chapter 44:...

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Test Two Vocabulary Chapter 44: Circulation and Respiration Hemolymph: the fluid in organisms with an open circulatory system (arthropods, mollusks) that includes the circulating fluid (blood) and the extracellular fluid of the body tissues (interstitial fluid or lymph) (hemo=blood, lymph= extracellular fluid. . hemolymph) Interstitial fluid: fluid derived from plasma that passes out of capillary walls into the surrounding tissues Fibrin: contract to form a tighter mass during blood clotting; forms from fibrinogen and forms a network that traps red cells and platelets Fibroinogen: required for blood clotting Thrombin: an enzyme of the blood plasma that catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin Prothrombin: a plasma protein involved in blood coagulation that on activation by factors in the plasma is converted to thrombin Arteries: a blood vessel that conveys blood from the heart to any part of the body Arterioles: a smaller artery leading from the arteries to the capillaries Veins: a blood vessel carrying blood from the tissues to the heart Venules: a small vein, especially one joining a capillary to a larger vein Capillaries: the smallest of blood vessels; the very thin walls of capillaries are permeable to many molecules and exchanges between blood and the tissues occur across them; the vessels that connect arteries with veins Venous valves: ensure that blood moves through the veins in only one direction, back to the heart Venous pump: skeletal muscles surrounding the veins contract to move blood by squeezing the vein Sinus venosus: one of the first chambers of a fish heart that collects blood Conus arteriosus: one of the second chambers of a fish heart that pumps blood Pulmonary artery: an artery conveying venous blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs (carries deoxygenated blood) Pulmonary veins: a vein conveying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart Oncotic pressure: the pressure exerted by plasma proteins on the capillary wall caused by the difference in protein concentration that causes osmosis of water into capillaries Angina pectoris: “chest pain” is pain in the heart and often in the left arm and shoulder and is a warning that the blood supply to the heart is inadequate but still sufficient Respiration: the process in an organism by which oxygen is conveyed to tissues and cells and carbon dioxide and water are given off Fick’s Law of Diffusion: the amount of gas diffusing depends on: 1) surface area of the membrane across which the gases can diffuse, (2) differences in partial pressure of the gas on different sides of the membrane Partial pressure: the amount the gas contributes to the total atmospheric pressure according to its fraction of the total molecules present Countercurrent flow: acts to maximize the oxygenation of the blood by increasing the concentration gradient of oxygen along the pathway for diffusion Pleural cavity: a narrow, fluid-filled space between the pleural membranes of the lung and the
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course BIOL 1106 taught by Professor Georgesimmons during the Spring '08 term at Virginia Tech.

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Test Two Vocabulary - Test Two Vocabulary Chapter 44:...

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