4.6 Chemotherapy_-_antiseptics_and_disinfectants.pdf - CHEMOTHERAPY ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS \u2022 These are

4.6 Chemotherapy_-_antiseptics_and_disinfectants.pdf -...

This preview shows page 1 - 10 out of 39 pages.

CHEMOTHERAPY ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS
Image of page 1
ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS These are nonselective, anti-infective agents. applied topically. activity ranges from a simple santization (i.e. decreased micro-organism population) to sterilization on the applied surface. Antiseptics have -static or -cidal effect on organism. they are applied to tissues to prevent or suppress microbial infections
Image of page 2
ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS Disinfectants are germicidal compounds usually applied to inanimate surfaces. depending on the concentration, conditions of exposure and numbers of organisms, the same compound may act as an antiseptic or as a disinfectant. proper concentration of the drug for the purpose intended is essential to achieve maximum efficiency. NOTE : The logic that “if a little is good, twice as much is better ” is not only uneconomical, but often has toxicological implications.
Image of page 3
ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS USES Topical anti-infective agents are extensively used:- in surgery for the antisepsis of the surgical area and surgeon’s hands, to disinfect surgical instruments, apparel to disinfect hospital premises, disinfectants are used for home and farm premises, in water treatment, in public health sanitation and as antiseptics in soaps, teat dips and dairy sanitizer.
Image of page 4
ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS Antiseptics have also been used for treating local infections even though systemic chemotherapeutic agents are now preferred because of better penetration of foci of infection, less likely to lose their potency when in contact with body fluid and debris in the affected area
Image of page 5
Properties of ideal antiseptics and disinfectants These include: - broad spectrum and potent germicidal activity, rapid onset long duration of action activity in the presence of pus, necrotic tissue and other organic material. high lipid solubility good dispensability Antiseptic should be non-toxic to the host tissue, and not impair healing disinfectants should be non destructive to applied surfaces. offensive odour, colour & staining properties should be absent or minimal.
Image of page 6
Mode of Action These agents exert their antimicrobial effect by:- denaturation of intracellular protein, alteration of cellular membrane, often through extraction of membrane lipids, or enzyme inhibition
Image of page 7
ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS Types commonly used: 1. ACIDS and ALKALIES ACIDS H + is bacteriostatic at pH 3 - 6 and bactericidal at pH < 3 e.g. HCl; H 2 S0 4 (0.1 to I N solution) use limited because of their corrosiveness. USES :- food preservative e.g. benzoic acid antiseptics e.g. boric acid, acetic acid etc. fungicides e.g. salicylic acid, benzoic acid etc. spermatocides e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid cauterizing agent (strong mineral acids )
Image of page 8
ANTISEPTICS AND DISINFECTANTS ALKALIES hydroxyl ion has antimicrobial activity pH > 9 will inhibit most bacteria e.g. NaOH and Ca(OH) 2 are employed as disinfectants.
Image of page 9
Image of page 10

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 39 pages?

  • Fall '19
  • Antiseptic

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture