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Unformatted text preview: Nutrition During Pregnancy 1st trimesterzygote(fertilized egg) travels through fallopian tube/ implants in wall of uterus development of organs, limb buds, facial features, placenta embryos extremely vulnerable to teratogens 2nd trimester continued development of organ systems growth- ~3 inches to over a foot 3rd trimester considerable growth fetus gains of it's weight brain growth- extensive lungs fully mature Food Safety Listeria spp. Raw seafood and meat, unpasterized diary Toxoplasma spp. Cat litter, undercooked meats, unwashed fruit and vegetables Mercury Shark, swordfish, big tuna, tilefish Alpha-lactalbumin- easy to digest Lactoferrin-iron nutrition and antibacterial agent Colostrums-full of mothers antibodies! Colostrums-full Infant needs things to avoid First year Cows milk, honey (botulism spores), egg whites, orange juice (citrus), peanut butter First 4-6 months Foods other than infant milk Always Excessive amounts of juice Sleeping with a bottle Review Human Breast Milk 0. Superior to formula milk: alpha-lactalbumin - easy to digest (protein) 0. lactoferrin - iron nutrition and antibacterial agent 1. colostrum - full of mothers antibodies! 0. Milk-like secretion during the first 2-3 days of lactation First Foods (4-6 months) 0. Iron fortified cereals 1. Introduced one at a time 0. Cereal (Cream) iron fortified 1. Pureed vegetables 2. Pureed fruit 2. Plenty of fluids (give water when start foods) 3. No honey (risk of botulism spores baby's system unable to fight) 4. No cow's milk for first year (little iron, little vitamin C, too high in protein (hard to digest), calcium, phosphorus to support a calf's faster growth rate) 5. No canned vegetables too high in salt 6. No desserts 7. Nursing bottle syndrome decayed teeth, bucktooth (pushes jawline out of place) Food Allergy Allergic response to food results from the body's immune system reacting to a food protein or other large molecule. 0. Antibodies released 0. 75% of allergies 1. Eggs, peanuts, and milk 1. Many symptoms 2. Hives, swelling, rashes 3. Cramping, constipation, bloating, nausea, diarrhea 4. Vomiting 5. Asthma 6. Reddened eyes, irritated nose 0. Iron and calcium deficiency common in children and adolescents 1. Iron toxicity leading cause of poisoning in toddlers and children 0. Accidental ingestion of iron pills Lead Poisoning 0. Lead accumulates in iron deficient bodies about 3X faster than in normal bodies! 1. Infants and children absorb 5-10X as much lead as adults 2. Lead comes from 5 P's: Paint, Pollution, Pottery, Pets, and Pipes (waterpipes). 1. 3. Lead, by being chemically similar, competes with iron, calcium and zinc. Lead displaces those metals from their sites of action, but then cannot perform the biological functions. Teenagers and Nutrition 0. Growth commences with puberty, resulting in nutrient needs that are highest in life. Energy, calcium and iron needs high. 0. Snacks significant part of food intake. So energy needs met, but vitamin and mineral intakes fall short of RDA's. 0. Adolescence: crucial time for bone development 0. Bones grow longer at a rapid rate 0. Epiphyseal plate which disappears when adult height is reached (Fig 13-3 on page 486) 1. Requirement for calcium higher 1. Only 13.5% teenage girls and 36.3% of teenage boys are obtaining the recommended amount = osteoporosis crisis later 2. Milk replaced by soda, less milk = less calcium 2. Girls' growth spurts: begin at age 10 or 11, peak at 12 3. Boys' growth spurts: begin at age 12 or 13, peak at 14 4. Both slow down at about age 19 Nutrients & Aging Nutrients & Aging 0. Vitamin D common deficiency 0. Skin synthesis falls, so need increases 1. Increased likelihood of deficiency 2. Make effort to go outside in the sun 1. Water 3. Must be watched 4. Thirst response poor 5. Mild dehydration a common cause of confusion 2. Iron 6. Needs unchanged 3. Low acid in stomach can cause deficiency 4. In women though, situation better due to menopause The Brain 0.
0. 1. 2. 3. Special organ Unlike the liver or adipose tissue, cannot expand or contract Cannot store its own reserve of glycogen or fat because no space Cannot store oxygen to oxidize those fuels or nutrients Dependent on blood supply But, needs are extraordinary! The Brain 4. accounts for only 2% of body weight, but contains 15% of the blood at any given time 5. uses 20-30% of the fuels (Basal Metabolism) 6. low blood supply- coma in minutes 7. no blood supply - coma in 10 secs. Brain uses 30 - 40 different neuro-transmitters to transmit messages. (amino acids to make these) 8. Brain needs minerals, vitamins, and lipids to build, facilitate processes and repair membranes. 9. The blood brain barrier regulates the entry and exit of materials into the brains inner environment. 10. Daily intake of Fats, vitamins and minerals likely have little effect on function. 11. Amino acids, however, are used the same day they are eaten to build neurotransmitters, so effects of intake quick (within minutes to hours of intake). Chapter 14 FOOD SAFETY Caused by Bacteria 1. Intoxications (via poisonous substance): Less common form of food poisoning. More serious and more fatalities. 2. Infections (via infectious agent): 2. Most common form of food poisoning. Usually not fatal. Food Borne Infections 0. Bacteria 1. Campylobacter (poultry, pets) 2. Salmonella (poultry, eggs, reptiles (pets)) 3. Enteropathogenic E. Coli (beef) 4. Listeria monocytogenes (cold cuts, soft cheeses, pates) 5. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (seafood) 6. Contaminated water (sewage, agricultural run-off, etc) can contain all types of bacteria, viruses, parasites, etc. 7. Contaminated fruits and vegetables 1. Pasteurization 2. Treatment of milk or juice with heat sufficient to kill certain pathogens commonly transmitted (not a sterilization) Listeria monocytogenes 1. First found from coleslaw 2. Unpasteruized cheese-Jalisco brand-associated with still births in California 3. 4. 5. 6. Food Safety? Affects immunocompromised Grows at refrigerator temperatures In 98, Sara Lee and other cold cuts Onset: 7-30 days Mimics flu, Meningitis (stiff neck, severe headache, fever), complications in pregnancy Avoid cross-contamination TEMPERATURE CONTROL Control of Temperature important factor Danger zone 40-140 F 1. Keep food above 140F 2. Keep food below 40F USDA Recommendations 7. In 1994, recommendations were to cook hamburgers until no pink color remained. 8. In 1998, the USDA urged consumers to use an accurate digital instant-read food thermometer. 9. Best way to check meat is with a thermometer! (or, cook until well done brown) Clostridium botulinum 2. Canned vegetables under pressure 3. Boil home-canned foods 4. No honey for infants 5. Onset: 4-36 hr Nervous system symptoms including double vision, inability to swallow, speech difficulty, progressive paralysis of the respiratory system - fatal Avoid some raw foods like the plague. 10. Raw milk, raw meat (Ground beef, pork, poultry) 11. Raw eggs, unpasteurized cheeses 12. Unpasteurized juices 13. Immunocompromised (elderly, infants, children, pregnant/lactating women, those with illness (diabetes, hepatitis, cancer, AIDS, etc): should also be careful with fruits and vegetables, raw seafood (oysters), etc. Other considerations 3. Church or company picnics are suspect (hot foods hot, cold foods cold) 4. Traveling: 8. Boil or treat water in foreign countries (do not take drinks with ice, brush your teeth with good water) 9. Peel fruits and vegetables in foreign countries 10. Boil it, cook it, peel it or forget it. Periods 0. Preindustrial 1. Industrial 2. Modern 4. Many methods focus on taking the water out of foods, manipulating temperature (heat, freezing), manipulating acid, as bacteria needs water and proper environment to live! Processing and Nutrients 12. Canning - Severe heat destroys some vitamins and leaching into liquid 13. Freezing - Little vitamin loss 14. Drying - Some vitamin loss through oxidation 15. Fresh > Frozen > Canned but frozen can be healthier than fresh (aged) 16. Steam/Microwave (safe but be careful of hot spots pierce first) /Pan-fry > Boiling 5. Make sure containers are safe put empty container in for one minute if warm, unsafe; if lukewarm, ok for short periods, if cool, safe for long periods) 17. If eat ample fruits and vegetables, no need to worry about vitamin loss from cooking methods Safe food handling procedures to remember 11. At the grocery store, put raw meat in separate plastic bags, check dates, and use a cooler if transportation requires more than 30 minutes. 12. At home, place meat in the coldest part of the fridge. If freezing, freeze right away. Use ground meat within 2 days. Use meat within 3-4 days. 13. When thawing, place in a bag or pan to prevent juices from dripping. Do not thaw in warm water. Bacteria thrives in this temperature. Safe food handling procedures to remember 5. In food preparation, keep everything separate. Always wash hands with hot soapy water after handling raw meat. Use separate cutting boards, utensils, and trays for meat. Keep juices from contaminating surfaces. Wash all produce properly. 6. During cooking, cook until 160F using a food thermometer. 7. Freeze or refrigerate leftovers immediately. Do not let it sit for hours. Leftovers should be eaten within 3-4 days and reheated to 165F. 8. Sauces and gravies need to boil for at least 1 min. 9. Wash sponges and dishcloths regularly. World Hunger 6. Chronic Hunger 1/5 7. Most children die not from starving to death but from compromised health due to dehydration from infections from diarrhea 8. ORT Oral rehydration therapy saving 1 million lives each year by stopping the infection-diarrhea cycle (Need clean water though) 0. Allows body to absorb fluids 25 fold 1. Recipe: 1 cup boiled water, 2 teaspoons sugar, a pinch of salt 9. Food Shortage - Famine 2. Primary cause: social causes war 3. Secondary: natural causes drought, flood, pests Hunger in the United States 7. 1 in 10 households experienced pain from lack of food 8. 3 in 10 households fit under the broader definition of food insecurity 10. Not knowing where their food is coming from or when it is coming 4. Skip meals or cut the size due to lack of resources 5. Rely on neighbors , friends, schools, etc to feed children 9. Primary cause is poverty many segments 11. Compounded by alcohol, drug abuse, mental and physical illness, etc 12. New "working" poor displaced farm families, former blue and white workers forced out of their professions into minimum wage jobs, increases in rent, etc. 6. Outnumber chronic poor 13. Chronic poor homeless, elderly, ethnic minorities, unskilled and unemployed ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course NATS 104 taught by Professor Lewis during the Winter '08 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.
- Winter '08