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AstronomyCollection edited by:OpenStax AstronomyContent authors:OpenStax Astronomy and OpenStax ChemistryOnline:<>This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by OpenStax Astronomy.Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0Collection structure revised: 2016/08/02PDF Generated: 2016/08/02 15:23:23For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see the "Attributions"section at the end of the collection.1
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TABLE OF CONTENTSPreface11Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour111.1The Nature of Astronomy131.2The Nature of Science141.3The Laws of Nature151.4Numbers in Astronomy161.5Consequences of Light Travel Time171.6A Tour of the Universe181.7The Universe on the Large Scale231.8The Universe of the Very Small261.9A Conclusion and a Beginning272Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy312.1Thinking Ahead312.2The Sky Above312.3Ancient Astronomy312.4Astrology and Astronomy312.5The Birth of Modern Astronomy313Orbits and Gravity333.1Thinking Ahead333.2The Laws of Planetary Motion333.3Newton's Great Synthesis333.4Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation333.5Orbits in the Solar System333.6Motions of Satellites and Spacecraft333.7Gravity with More Than Two Bodies334Earth, Moon, and Sky354.1Thinking Ahead354.2Earth and Sky354.3The Seasons354.4Keeping Time354.5The Calendar354.6Phases and Motions of the Moon354.7Ocean Tides and the Moon354.8Eclipses of the Sun and Moon35
5Radiation and Spectra375.1Thinking Ahead375.2The Behavior of Light375.3The Electromagnetic Spectrum375.4Spectroscopy in Astronomy375.5The Structure of the Atom375.6Formation of Spectral Lines375.7The Doppler Effect376Astronomical Instruments396.1Thinking Ahead396.2Telescopes396.3Telescopes Today396.4Visible-Light Detectors and Instruments396.5Radio Telescopes396.6The Future of Large Telescopes397Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System417.1Thinking Ahead417.2Overview of Our Planetary System417.3Composition and Structure of Planets417.4Dating Planetary Surfaces417.5Origin of the Solar System418Earth as a Planet438.1Thinking Ahead438.2The Global Perspective438.3The Crust of the Earth438.4The Earth's Atmosphere438.5Life and Chemical Evolution438.6Cosmic Influences on the Evolution of the Earth439Cratered Worlds459.1Thinking Ahead459.2General Properties of the Moon459.3The Lunar Surface459.4Impact Craters459.5The Origin of the Moon459.6Mercury45This OpenStax book is available for free at
10Earth-Like Planets: Venus and Mars4710.1Thinking Ahead4710.2The Nearest Planets: An Overview4710.3The Geology of Venus4710.4The Massive Atmosphere of Venus4710.5The Geology of Mars4710.6Water and Life on Mars4710.7Divergent Planetary Evolution4711The Giant Planets4911.1Thinking Ahead4911.2Exploring the Outer Solar System4911.3The Giant Planets4911.4

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