Chapter4Notes - Chapter 4 Notes Society-Society refers to people who interact in a dfined territory and share a culture Gerhard Lenski Society and

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Chapter 4 Notes – Society -Society refers to people who interact in a dfined territory and share a culture. Gerhard Lenski: Society and Technology -Sociocultural evolution – changes that occur as a society gains new technology. Five types of societies as defined by Lenski's work: 1. Hunting and gathering societies – simplest of all societies, makes use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food. -They must be nomadic, moving on to find new sources of vegetation or to follow migrating animals. -They depend on the family for many things. -Usually have a shaman , or spiritual leader. -Hunting and gathering societies are disappearing with the rise of technology. 2. Horticultural and Pastoral Societies -Horticulture – the use of hand tools to raise crops -Pastoralism – the domestication of animals -Pastoralists remained nomadic, horticulturalists formed settlements. -Once a society is capable of producing a material surplus (more resources than are needed to support the population), not everyone has to work at providing food. Greater specialization results. 3. Agrarian Societies -Agriculture – large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources. -Farmers could work the same land for generations, allowing for development of permanent settlements. -Greater production meant even more specialization, dozens of distinct occupations. -Extreme social inequality, raises men to a position of social dominance.
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2009 for the course SOCI 1301 taught by Professor Maldonado during the Summer '09 term at Austin Community College.

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Chapter4Notes - Chapter 4 Notes Society-Society refers to people who interact in a dfined territory and share a culture Gerhard Lenski Society and

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