Lecture 13 - Composite Materials Composite Materials ISSUES...

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1 Composite Materials ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. • What are the classes and types of composites? • Why are composites used instead of metals, ceramics, or polymers? • What are some typical applications? Composite Materials
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2 Composites • Combine materials with the objective of getting a more desirable combination of properties – Ex: get flexibility & weight of a polymer plus the strength of a ceramic • Principle of combined action – Mixture gives “averaged” properties Composites : -- Multiphase material w/significant proportions of each phase. Dispersed phase : -- Purpose: enhance matrix properties. MMC : increase σ y , TS , creep resist. CMC : increase Kc PMC : increase E , σ y , TS , creep resist. -- Classification: Particle , fiber , structural Matrix : -- The continuous phase -- Purpose is to: - transfer stress to other phases - protect phases from environment -- Classification: MMC, CMC, PMC metal ceramic polymer Reprinted with permission from D. Hull and T.W. Clyne, An Introduction to Composite Materials , 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York, 1996, Fig. 3.6, p. 47. Terminology/Classification woven fibers cross section view 0.5mm 0.5mm
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3 Composite Survey Large- particle Dispersion- strengthened Particle-reinforced Continuous (aligned) Aligned Randomly oriented Discontinuous (short) Fiber-reinforced Laminates Sandwich panels Structural Composites Adapted from Fig. 16.2, Callister 7e . Composite Survey: Particle-I •E x am p le s : Adapted from Fig. 10.19, Callister 7e . (Fig. 10.19 is copyright United States Steel Corporation, 1971.) - Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) (ductile) particles: cementite (Fe 3 C) (brittle) 60 µ m Adapted from Fig. 16.4, Callister 7e . (Fig. 16.4 is courtesy Carboloy Systems, Department, General Electric Company.) - WC/Co cemented carbide matrix: cobalt (ductile) particles: WC (brittle, hard) V m : 10-15 vol%! 600 µ m Adapted from Fig. 16.5, Callister 7e . (Fig. 16.5 is courtesy Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.) - Automobile tires matrix: rubber (compliant) particles: C (stiffer)
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4 Composite Survey: Particle-II Concrete – gravel + sand + cement - Why sand and gravel? Sand packs into gravel voids Reinforced concrete - Reinforce with steel rerod or remesh
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Lecture 13 - Composite Materials Composite Materials ISSUES...

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