Lecture 9 - Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties ISSUES TO...

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1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. Stress and strain : What are they and why are they used instead of load and deformation? Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much deformation occurs? What materials deform least? Plastic behavior: At what point does permanent deformation occur? What materials are most resistant to permanent deformation? Toughness and ductility : What are they and how do we measure them? Chapter 6: Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties Mechanical Properties Elastic means reversible ! Elastic Deformation Elastic Deformation 1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload F δ bonds stretch return to initial F δ Linear- elastic Non-Linear- elastic
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2 Plastic means permanent ! Plastic Deformation (Metals) Plastic Deformation (Metals) F δ linear elastic linear elastic δ plastic 1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload planes still sheared F δ elastic + plastic bonds stretch & planes shear δ plastic Stress has units: N/m 2 or lb f /in 2 Engineering Stress Shear stress, τ : Area, A F t F t F s F F F s τ = F s A o Tensile stress, σ : original area before loading Area, A F t F t σ = F t A o 2 f 2 m N or in lb =
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3 Simple tension: cable τ Note: τ = M / A c R here. Common States of Stress Common States of Stress A o = cross sectional area (when unloaded) F F o σ = F A o τ = F s A σ σ M M A o 2 R F s A c Torsion (a form of shear): drive shaft Ski lift (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson) (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson) Canyon Bridge, Los Alamos, NM o σ = F A Simple compression: Note: compressive structure member ( σ < 0 here). (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson) OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (1) OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (1) A o Balanced Rock, Arches National Park
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4 Bi-axial tension: Hydrostatic compression: Pressurized tank σ < 0 h (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson) (photo courtesy P.M. Anderson) OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (2) OTHER COMMON STRESS STATES (2) Fish under water σ z > 0 σ θ > 0 Tensile strain: Lateral strain: Shear strain: Strain is always dimensionless. Engineering Strain θ 90º 90º - θ y x θ γ = x / y = tan ε= δ L o δ ε L = L w o Adapted from Fig. 6.1 (a) and (c), Callister 7e. δ /2 δ L /2 L o w o
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5 Stress Stress -Strain Testing Strain Testing • Typical tensile test machine Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister 7e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W.
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Lecture 9 - Chapter 6: Mechanical Properties ISSUES TO...

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