Exam 3 Diagrams - FIGURE 11.4 Becoming a biped changes the...

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Unformatted text preview: FIGURE 11.4 Becoming a biped changes the way an animal balances. The quadruped’s center of gravity goes right through its back to the ground, balancing its weight over four legs (a). If the quadruped stands on two legs it either must bend its knees (in) or fall forward (c). A habitual biped has structural changes in the skeleton so Elia: the center of gravity falls between the two feet when stancfing with legs extended ((1). (After Wolpoff, 1999). FIGURE 12.7 Comparison of hominici skeletons. The austraiopithecines (left and center) were short bipedal primates with relatively long arms and short legs. Compared to modern humans Ausrrolopithecus Austraiopii‘hecus Homo sapiens (right) the australopithecine torso ofarensis afn‘conus {50 to 90 kg) was broad and funnel shaped. {oboui 29 to 44 kg) [30-40 kg) FIGURE $2.22 Key features of robust austraiopithecines include Ema]! brain Sogifiufcres? " ’ Relativer r r { U __ prognofi‘nic ‘ . I 1" - - L. }Somewhai emporo ‘ I ; nucha! crest Bgcuspid r . r megodont Flat cranial P3 (“SWIM U—shaped, shallow base (a) Brood bm narrow peivis \ ( A. afarensis H. sapiens in) FIGURE 12.10 Key features of Australopitbecus afarensis include {a) a small cranial capacity, and craniai crests (b) a shallow, U-shaped paiate with reduced canine and (c, d) features of the postcranial skeleton that indicate habituai bipedaiity. Sogiflui cres! _ _ adaptations to heavy chewing such as a iarge sagittaf crest and flaring zygomatics, a dished face and strongiy flexed cranial base. Ficréd t, ' zygomcfic V I S H mu er FronHeerh \ Large cheek teeth Sogiflal crest Strong post-orbiter; consh'ucfion SlEght brain increase Rounclecl vault No crests . less , I .7 /pro‘ieding ' ‘ ..... .. ace Nasal . More flexed \ pillars No Harmg Of . base Slightly smaller zygomatics Fewer our cells from ’89,}. FIGURE 12.20 Key features of Australopz'rbecus afn‘canus include a rounded vault without cranial crests, a slightly flexed cranial base and moderate facial prognathism. Small or no Round mull {no keels} \ Small brain (> Australopithecvs} \x FIGURE 13.1 Key anatomical features of Homo habilis include reduced facial size, a parabolic palate, and some brain enlargement. supraorbilal ioms No canine lasso Somewlmt prognuil'ric {< Australopithecus} Parabolic arcade HERAL VI5W Enlarged brain in angular vaui’r Anguiorioms < ' / LOW mm“! a” Bur~1ike suproorbiloi Occipiiu! torus torus No chin FRONTAL VIEW Sogifial keei Bar-like supruorbiiul torus PENTAGONAL REAR VIEW 509ml gee; Occipitul forus how vauii 1 FIGURE 13.6 Major features MW of Homo erectus include increased Greatest breadth low brainsize, an angular vauk, and across mostoicls cranial superstructures. Anguior vouli Round vault, no tori or keeis FIGURE 13.7 Compared with modern humans, Homo erectus has a iarger face, iacks 3 Chin, and has a more angufiar vault and smaller brain. H. erecfus H. sapiens Anoiomicuily Modern Homo sapiens Large cranial capacity 1’ {R = 1350 cc} timiteé dwelopment of brow ridges Limiteé Smoil Emma development Pace 0550 of occipital iorus or bun FIGURE 14.1 Features of the . Prominent mastoid skui] of anatomically modern Chin smell geefh process Homo sapiens. and jaws Archaic Homo sapiens Large, arching browridges Thick-boned, iow craniai vaui? Strong brawridges Occipital iorus (ridge) Large nasal aperture inflated cheeks {no canine fossc} WW 0 ans 5 FIGURE 14.2 Features of the skuli of archaic Homo sapiens. NEANDERTAL Long and iaw vault Barbie-arched browridges Large cranial _ capacity Robust, High, wide .- doubie and iarge arched nose brawriciges - r Enflateci cheeks ’ chlpltal (no canine un Fossa) Midfaciai proiectian h Lam? ed h Large N h s ave-s - . EHCESOZP Noe m iuxiamasloid Re’mmdor O: m eminence 5P°Ce M 0 cms 5 FIGURE 14.14 The Neandertal skull and teeth. Neandertais have taumdont moEars. FIGURE 14.16 Neandertals were much more heavily built than anatomicaEly modern humans. Archaic Neanderqu Anatomiculbr modern Homo sapiens ' Homo sapiens FIGURE 15.1 Variations on a theme: archaic Homo sapiens, Neandenal, and anatomicaliy modern Homo sapiens skufls. ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course ANTH 265 taught by Professor Gillett-netting during the Fall '07 term at University of Arizona- Tucson.

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Exam 3 Diagrams - FIGURE 11.4 Becoming a biped changes the...

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