dna - Staple in this corner Name E-mail address Mailing...

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Staple in this corner © James E. Mickle and Patricia M. Aune 2007 Name E-mail address Mailing Address DNA Objectives 1. Develop an understanding of the role of DNA in living things. 2. Extraction of DNA from a living source. 3. Understand and simulate DNA analysis. Before Lab : Read Chapter 10, Introduction – Section 10.3 and Sections 10.7 and 12.15 (12.16 in 3 rd ) in in Campbell et al. , Biology: Concepts and Connections , 3 rd or 4 th ed. or Sections 10.3, 10.6 and 12.10-12.12 in the 5 th ed. or Sections 10.3, 10.6, 12.2 and 12.11 in the 6 th ed. Turn in : This entire completed lab unit, including answers to all questions and the DNA Analysis simulation. You will need to turn in one photograph. Introduction Why are you you? Why are you human and not a frog or a fungus? The answer is deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA. DNA has been called the "blueprint of life" because it contains all of the instructions needed for the growth, development, metabolism, and reproduction of an organism. Evolution is driven by changes in the DNA of organisms, which can create new and perhaps better adapted variations in a species. What this indicates is that DNA is an information molecule. DNA directs the day-to-day operation of cells as well as reproduction of organisms. With a few very specialized exceptions in plant and animals, all cells in an organism contain all of the DNA needed to create an entire organism. This fact forms the basis of the current "hi-tech" techniques for cloning organisms. DNA is a polymer of subunits called nucleotides. The DNA strand is quite thin with a uniform diameter of 2 nm but is very long and tightly packed into the nucleus of a cell. The DNA from a single human cell (one CELL, not a whole person) is about 1.8 m long - which is about 6 feet. If the diameter of the DNA molecule were expanded to the width of standard cassette recording tape, the tape would be about 150 miles long. That is the equivalent of 1800 cassettes. So what is DNA like? In this lab you will extract and see DNA from wheat germ. The wheat germ is heated to break up the plant tissue and cell walls. Liquid dish washing soap is added to disrupt the lipids in the cell and nuclear membranes. This breaks the cell open and releases the DNA from the cells of the wheat germ tissue. This released DNA is exposed to naturally occurring DNAases within the wheat germ. The DNA can be kept whole by adding meat tenderizer, which contains an enzyme that denatures
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BIO 106 Distance Learning 2 DNA DNAases, and by cooling to room temperature or colder. In order to separate the DNA from the rest of the solution, cold alcohol is added and the DNA will drift into the alcohol – wheat germ solution interface. The DNA strands can then be spooled onto a rod and pulled out of the solution. Directions for DNA Extraction: In the DNA kit: Raw Wheat germ (2 Tb) Popsicle stick Glass rod (Master Kit) pH Paper (Master Kit) Thermometer (Master Kit) 25 and 100 ml Graduated cylinder (Master Kit) You will need to provide: 2 Plastic cups Meat tenderizer (2 Tb) NEW bottle of rubbing alcohol Water Heat source (stove or hot plate) Freezer/ice
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