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Staple in this corner © James E. Mickle and Patricia M. Aune 2009 Name E-mail address Mailing Address Transport In Animals Transport In Animals Objectives : 1. Measure heart rate during various activities. 2. Measure blood pressure during various activities. 3. Relate heart rate and blood pressure to circulation in a large mammal (human). Before Lab : 1.Read Chapter 23 in Campbell et al, 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th 5 th or 6 th edition. 2. This lab requires the use of Pulse Watches® and a blood pressure cuff. Completion of at least 5 lab units, with write-ups submitted and quizzes taken, is required before the equipment will be sent to you. In addition, you must submit the completed request for equipment on the last page of this lab unit. In addition, please send an e-mail request for the equipment to or . Turn in : This entire lab unit. Return Items : Pulse Watch and Blood Pressure Cuff. A grade in BIO 106 will not be issued until these items are returned. Introduction Small animals, such as a Hydra or a planarian, do not have a specialized circulatory system--they rely on diffusion to obtain oxygen and have a gut cavity large enough so that most cells have ready access to products of digestion. Larger animals must have a circulatory system that efficiently transports nutrients, gases, water, and wastes throughout the body. Circulatory systems are of two basic types: open and closed. In open systems there is a heart (or hearts!) that pumps body fluids. Vessels carry blood to and away from the heart, and these vessels open into the body cavity. Body fluids then circulate directly over the organs, and are taken up by vessels to be again pumped by the heart. Examples of animals with open systems are snails, spiders, and insects. In closed systems , the body fluids, called blood , are entirely contained in vessels. The smallest of these vessels, the capillaries , have thin walls for exchange of materials between the blood and body tissues. A closed system allows a more efficient and precise movement of blood. Humans and octopi are two examples of animals with closed systems. In this part of the lab you will be measuring the rate of transport (heart rate) in a large mammal, humans. Mammals have closed systems.
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BIO 105 Distance Learning 2 Transport in Animals Activity A: Maximum and Target Heart Rates Maximum heart rate (MHR) is the maximum number of times per minute that your heart can contract. MHR decreases with age from about 220 in young children to about 160 for a 60 year old individual and is often used to calculate target zones for exercise. At about 85% of MHR exercise switches from aerobic to anaerobic, in which a deficit of oxygen occurs and lactic acid synthesis begins. The following calculation may aid you in developing an exercise program.
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This note was uploaded on 06/24/2009 for the course BIO 106 taught by Professor Flick during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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