January 22 - I For Thursday first 7 sections of Aristotle...

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January 22, 2008 I For Thursday, first 7 sections of Aristotle. II For reference purposes and secondary sources: A The bibliographies B The internet encyclopedia of philosophy C Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy III Overview A Ethics or Moral Philosophy i Practical (applied) a Bioethics or Medical ethics 1 Abortion, cloning b Legal ethics 1 Ethics that govern or ought to govern legal matters c Journalist ethics d Business ethics e Environmental ethics f All informed by the theoretical side of ethics. ii Theoretical a Descriptive 1 Identify the actual values and norms of right and wrong conduct 2 The actual concepts of good and evil that are used in different cultures in human history. 3 A type of factual investigation 1 What were the values of ancient Greece, or feudal Europe, or America in the 21 st century? 1 Has the input of anthropology, history, etc. 4 Highly variable. 1 E.g. Ancient Greece thought it was ethically permissible to practice infanticide. Greeks, Romans practiced slavery. This was an acceptable way of treating a section of the human population. b Prescriptive –what we are concerned with. 1 What particular individuals advocate based on their own religious, cultural traditions, reasoning, 2 The prescriptions of Aristotle, Kant, Mill. The reasons they provide in defense of their recommendations, prescriptions. 3 Types or Traditions: 1 *Virtue ethic of Aristotle –teleological ethics. 1 Excellences of characters. 2 *Kant’s ethics based on notion of right and wrong – deontological ethics. 1
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3 *Mill’s Utilitarian ethics (based in many ways fundamentally on Aristotle’s and Kant’s prescriptions, as modified by Mill). 4 The Social Contract theory 1 E.g. Thomas Hobbes in political philosophy. 5 Natural Law tradition 1 A moral law which informs nature as a whole, and which also informs human nature. 6 Egoism 1 At its most extreme: Ayn Rand. Actions are morally right or wrong insofar as they promote the interests or goals of the individual and not society. A self-interest is the ultimate ethical standard for appraising actions. c Meta-ethics 1 Is neutral about how we ought to live or why we ought to live. 2 Analyze the nature of ethical judgments and reasoning, ethical theories and concepts.
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January 22 - I For Thursday first 7 sections of Aristotle...

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