HC.Week2Bb - Overview Week 2 Moral conflicts and moral...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Overview Week 2 Moral conflicts and moral decisions Major Ethical Theories -Teleological theories -Deontological Theories Recent Challenges to these theories Virtue Ethics Feminist Ethics/Care ethics Casuistry Ethical Principles
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Moral Conflicts Examples: Jude and the wallet TatianaTarasoff case This leads us to engage in moral reasoning which helps provide justification or reasons for the decisions we make.
Image of page 2
Moral Decisions Moral decisions are based on ethical principles or ethical theories. Why ethical principles or theories? -Because they provide language and concepts for discussing and resolving moral dilemmas -Because they provide guidance and evaluation
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Major Ethical Theories Teleological or Consequence-based Theories (Utilitarian Theory) Deontological or Duty-based Theories (Kant’s Theory) (Ross’s Theory)
Image of page 4
Teleological Theories These theories are based on some conception of the human good, or telos Most prominent theory: Utilitarianism
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Two classical Utilitarians Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) Central features of Utilitarianism: 1. The Principle of Utility 2. The Standard of Goodness
Image of page 6
The Principle of Utility (PU) or the Greatest Happiness Principle PU “Actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.” (Mill) GHP “Those actions are right that produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people” (Mill) Key concept in both formulations is happiness Utilitarians employ a calculus (decision procedure) for assessing which action maximizes goodness. Jude: Should I keep the wallet or return it? Keeping the wallet has some benefits and costs Returning the wallet has some benefits and costs
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Standard of Goodness But on what basis should we judge the goodness or badness of an action? For Bentham, the standard is pleasure or lack of pain (happiness =pleasure) For Mill, the standard is happiness (or lack of unhappiness) Utilitarianism states that we should act in ways that maximize pleasure or happiness and minimize pain or unhappiness.
Image of page 8
Who counts? Whose benefits and costs should be included? Utilitarianism rests on the principle which demands that we consider the welfare of everyone that has the capacity to experience pleasure and pain . So both humans and animals count, and importantly “each counts for one and no more than one”.
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Consequentialism All utilitarian theories decide the rightness or wrongness of an action based entirely on its consequences. Morality consists in producing good consequences, not in having good intentions.
Image of page 10
Two Types of Utilitarianism 1. Act Utilitarianism 2. Rule Utilitarianism
Image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Act Utilitarianism Act utilitarianism is concerned with the consequences that follow from individual actions and does not concern itself with types of actions.
Image of page 12
Strengths of Act Utilitarianism It employs a simple , action guiding calculus It is impartial It is not merely a formal system, but aims to promote a world that serves the best interests of humanity
Image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern