dispute between church and state 12th century

dispute between church and state 12th century - Were there...

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Were there any fundamental causes of dispute between Church and State between 1070 and 1170? When William the Conqueror arrived on the shores of England, he brought with him the papal banner, and it was under this legitimising symbol that he took the throne from the native English king. Four years later, Lanfranc was created Archbishop of Canterbury at the express recommendation of the pope, and it appeared as if king and pope shared common interests for the church in England. Indeed, Gregory VII told William that ‘among kings we embrace you with peculiar affection.’ 1 Yet constantly under the surface was the rivalry over jurisdiction between the king in his own land and the universal rights of the Church. For although Gregory also said that ‘the apostolic and royal dignities excel all others in this world, and that almighty God has apportioned his governance between them’ 2 it was an uneasy relationship, at least as far as the king was concerned. A sporadic conflict developed, that would last for centuries, and although for most of the time the king and Church were in harmony, from time to time flashpoints The harmony of Church and State was both necessary and useful to the king. Clerics made up for the first part, by far the bulk of the king’s administration. Although this might well be faute de mieux , it is unsurprising that the men who ran the king’s chancery and exchequer at the end of Henry I’s rule were the bishops of Salisbury, Lincoln and Ely. Churchmen formed the literate elite of medieval world, and as the written word became more and more prominent in government, literate churchmen became more and more necessary. The Church also held a firm grip over the social structure of the whole of Europe, in that oaths for whatever purpose were always the domain of the church, quite apart from its trump card of holding the path to heaven. It was a pious age, strengthened by the Cistercian-spearheaded revival of monasticism appealing to some, and the prospect of absolution on Crusade for others. All rulers of the time ultimately obeyed the Church, from pure personal piety at times of crisis, including William Rufus when he thought himself dying in 1093, to which I shall refer later. The good relations between Church and State were a top priority for kings as much as for clerics. The English Church in the 12th century was also not an integral body that kings could play
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2009 for the course HIST 2830 taught by Professor Paulhyams during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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dispute between church and state 12th century - Were there...

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