HW 6 - Abram Balloga Armand Leon Hershowitz, Michelle...

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Abram Balloga Armand Leon Hershowitz, Michelle Bitman Jorge Edgardo Flores-Herrera William Schuh PHYS 1203 HW 6 1. Why are the days longer in the summer than in the winter? Is this true at the equator? 2. On what days does the sun rise exactly in the east and set exactly in the west? No matter where you are geographically on the Earth, the Sun will always rise exactly in the east and set exactly in the west on the two equinoxes – March 21 and September 21. 3. What is the phase of the moon during (a) a lunar eclipse (b) a solar eclipse? During a lunar eclipse, there is a full moon phase and requires that the moon passes into the earth’s shadow. During a solar eclipse, there is a new moon phase and requires that the moon is located in between the sun and earth. 4. How do we know that the eclipse is not just one of the phases of the moon? There are two kinds of eclipses, eclipses of the moon and eclipses of the sun. In an eclipse of the moon, the earth comes between the sun and the moon and casts a shadow on the moon. Such an eclipse can be seen from everywhere on that half of the earth that is in darkness, assuming a clear sky. This occurs at the time of full moon, but it does not occur at every full moon because the orbit of the moon is slightly inclined (about 5°) from the orbit of the earth. Thus, the shadow of the earth misses the moon most months. This is also why we do not observe an eclipse of the sun at every new moon and why lunar and solar eclipses often occur close in time. Eclipses of the sun are even more rare, because the moon is considerably smaller than the earth (about 1/6 the diameter), and thus its shadow on the earth is much smaller. That’s why you have to go to the right spot on the earth on the view an eclipse of the sun. By coincidence, the angular size of the moon and the sun are almost identical (about half a degree). Consequently, in a total eclipse of the sun, the disk of the moon just covers the disk of the sun, allowing one to see features of the solar atmosphere. The moon is much larger relative to the earth than are any of the other satellites in the Solar System.The moon often appears reddish during a lunar eclipse because some of the sunlight that reaches it passes through the earth’s atmosphere where the blue light is preferentially scattered. An astronaut on the moon would see a sunset over the horizon of the earth. In terms of
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This note was uploaded on 06/25/2009 for the course PHYS 1203 taught by Professor Padamsee, h during the Spring '08 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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HW 6 - Abram Balloga Armand Leon Hershowitz, Michelle...

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