BERDACHE, LECTURE

BERDACHE, LECTURE - History 245-Dr. Banner Notes for...

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History 245--Dr. Banner Notes for Roscoe, The Zuni Man-Woman The first encounter between Pueblos and Spaniards was when Vasquez de Coronado was looking for the Seven Gold Cities of Cibola, and some of his soldiers arrived there in 1540. (There were actually six pueblos at that point). Subsequent conquest of Pueblos by Spanish. Spaniards retained control until 1849, when, after the Mexican War, the US took over the territory. The Zuni, like most Pueblo tribes, traced their ancestry to the ancient Anasazi, the ruins of whose pueblo like structures you can visit in Mesa Verde and Chaco Canyon. They also thought that the Anasazi had come to Northwestern New Mexico from the Grand Canyon, and they were descended from lizards and frogs from an ancient ocean. (Some geologists believe that in prehistoric times much of that region of the country was a vast sea.) TERMS BERDACHE : applied by early missionaries; technically refers to boy prostitutes in the Middle East. Some analysts use the term:two-spirit women and men; others use term: man-woman (for biological male crossing over to be a female); and woman-man (biological woman crossing over to be a man.) Terms in individual languages: lhamana, Zuni; nadle, Navajo; winkte, Lakota (Sioux); mixuga, Osage.
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PUEBLO: The word is a variation of our word "city." They are made of adobe; with many rooms. They often have "stories;" when the culture was most prosperous, they would go as high as seven stories. Entry is in roof; you climb up on them through ladder. Thus the members of the society live together, in an arrangement we might regard as somewhat "communal," although families will live in their own rooms and eat their meals together. Before the Pueblos were preyed on by the Spanish, the Navajos, and the U.S., and before they encountered the European diseases to which they had not developed immunity (e.g., smallpox, they were large, prosperous societies). They were settled agriculturalists as early as 800 A.D., and they had developed techniques for farming in regions with a desert-like topography. They used irrigation canals and hillside terracing. KACHINA : masked, decorated personification of a god, either played by men in religious ceremonies or made as sacred objects, "dolls." Kolhama: the man-woman kachina "scare kachinas" used to frighten children with difficult behavior Kachina society: major religious society. All males belong. KIVA : sacred religious space--"church." The kivas are deep indentations dug into ground--large "holes" or "caves," usually circular in shape, with some kind of cover and opening in the top. You descend into them by ladders. Seems an obvious descent into "mother" earth. CAST OF CHARACTERS Matilda Coxe Stevenson --raised in Washington, D.C. to middle-class parents.
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Educated at home and attended a female academy; she did study law with her father. Married Colonel James Stevenson, a geologist, who was executive officer of the U.S. Survey of the Territories, famed for his study of geysers in Yellowstone. (They also collected geological specimens to the
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This note was uploaded on 06/26/2009 for the course HIST 245gm taught by Professor Banner during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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BERDACHE, LECTURE - History 245-Dr. Banner Notes for...

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