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ANTH_121_4_14_2009[1]

ANTH_121_4_14_2009[1] - 5 Human Evolution...

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5.  Human Evolution April 14, 09 www.eskeletons.org ____________________________________________________________________________ ____ CRANIAL MORPHOLOGY Skull Weights Humans 1350g Chimpanzee 400 g Orangutan 400g Macaque 100g Basic Structure : Humans - high  forehead  [whereas orangutans has foreheads that go back immediately] - large  brain   case  [don’t have pinching in skulls] chin  stick out temporal lines : where muscles from jaw connect to skull for bite force - small  zygomatic  bones: where muscles go through aka cheek bones [gorillas-large ones for  muscle to go through] foramen magnum : hole where spinal cord exits brain less sexually dimorphic : hard to tell differences in skulls but able to Other features of primates - Eye orbits : post orbital bar in lemurs due to bigger eyes - sexual dimorphism:  males have sagital crest [like a Mohawk on skull] in gorillas Teeth [studied to identify species] aka the Dental Formula a. incisors: canines: premolars: molars b.  strepsrrhines:  variable c. platyrrhines:  2:1:3:2 or 2:1:3:3 d. catarrhines:  2:1:2:3  function and form : incisors cut, canines puncture, molars grind
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-  teeth as tools -  tooth size : vary due to function or sexual dimorphism POST-CRANIAL SKELETON - reflects locomotion - terrestrial quadrupeds have fairly even lengthed limbs to walk on all fours; narrow thorax;  shoulders less movement; shorter digits; shorter tail - arboreal quadruped have fairly even lengthed limbs but long to climb on trees; narrow thorax;  shoulder allowed more movements; longer digits for grasp, longer tail for balance - suspensory [bracciating] primate: longer arms, broad thorax, mobile shoulder joint Quadrapedal vs Bipedal - rib cage compressed from side to side in quadrapeds and front to back for bipedals - bipedals have long legs and short arms - bipedals have straight hand bones [we can high-five]
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