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Lecture_2 - Today's Lecture Atoms Molecules and Ions 2.1...

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1 Atoms, Molecules and Ions Today’s Lecture 2.1 The Early History of Chemistry 2.2 Fundamental Chemical Laws 2.3 Dalton’s Atomic Theory 2.4 Cannizzaro’s Interpretation 2.5 Early Experiments to Characterize the Atom 1 Observation Hypothesis The Scientific Method Experiment Theory (model) Law 2 Experiment Theory modified as needed Prediction Figure 1.4
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2 The Early History of Chemistry Democritus proposed the existence of atoms as the smallest indivisible unit (~400 B.C.) Joseph Proust showed that a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by mass (~early 19th century) now known as the law of definite proportions e.g. carbon dioxide always contains 2.66g of O for every 1 g of C 3 John Dalton reasoned that if elements were composed of tiny individual particles (i.e. atoms), a given compound should always contain the same combination of these particles Fundamental Chemical Laws (cont’d) Dalton discovered another principle that could be explained in terms of atoms d d h d ff e.g. consider two compounds that contain different relative amounts of carbon and oxygen compound I: 1.33 g of O for every 1 g of C compound II: 2.66 g of O for every 1 g of C how could this fact be explained in terms of atoms? 4 this principle could be readily applied to compounds of other elements as well and is now known as the law of multiple proportions
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