Lecture_7 - Todays Lecture Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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1 Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry Today’s Lecture 4.9 Acid-Base Reactions 4.10 Oxidation-Reduction Reaction (or Redox Reactions) 4.11 Balancing Redox Reactions 4.12 Simple Redox Titrations (review on your own) 1 Definition of Acids and Bases ± although acids and bases can be identified from a practical standpoint, from a chemist’s point of view the Arrhenius and/or Bronsted-Lowry definitions better describe the nature of acids and bases ± Arrhenius definition ± acid: substance that produces H + ions when dissolved in water base substance that produces OH - ion when dissolved 2 ± base: substance that produces OH ions when dissolved in water ± Bronsted-Lowry definition ± acid: a proton donor ± base: a proton acceptor
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2 Acid-Base Reactions ± a significant property of acids and bases is the ability of each to cancel or neutralize the properties of the other ± in a neutralization reaction an acid and base react to form water and an aqueous solution of an ionic compound (i.e. a salt) ± strong acid + strong base: HC + NaOH H O + NaC 3 ± HCl (aq) (aq) H 2 O (l) + NaCl (aq) ± H + (aq) +C l - (aq) +Na + (aq) +OH - (aq) H 2 O (l) + (aq) l - (aq) ± H + (aq) - (aq) H 2 O (l) Acid-Base Reactions (cont’d) ± strong base + weak acid: ± KOH (aq) + CH 3 COOH (aq) H 2 O (l) + KCH 3 COO (aq) ± K + (aq) + OH - (aq) + CH 3 COOH (aq) H 2 O (l) + K + (aq) + CH 3 COO - (aq) ± OH - (aq) + CH 3 COOH (aq) H 2 O (l) + CH 3 COO - (aq) ± strong acid + weak base: ± HCl (aq) + NH 3(aq) NH 4 + (aq) + Cl - (aq) 4 ± H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + NH 3(aq) NH 4 + (aq) + Cl - (aq) ± H + (aq) + NH 3(aq) NH 4 + (aq) ± weak acid + weak base: ± CH 3 COOH (aq) +NH 3(aq) NH 4 + (aq) +CH 3 COO - (aq)
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3 Acid-Base Titrations ± acid-base titrations are an example of volumetric analysis where one solution of known concentration (the titrant) is
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Lecture_7 - Todays Lecture Types of Chemical Reactions and...

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