Lecture_20 - Today's Lecture Bonding: General Concepts 13.4...

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1 1 Bonding: General Concepts Today’s Lecture 13.4 Ions: Electron Configurations 13.5 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds 13.6 Partial Ionic Character of Covalent Bonds 13.7 The Covalent Chemical Bond: A Model 13.8 Covalent Bond Energies and Chemical Reactions 1 13.9 The Localized Electron Bonding Model 13.10 Lewis Structures ± how do we determine which main group elements will gain or lose electrons in the formation of ionic compounds? ± several main group elements gain or lose electrons to Ions: Electron Configurations form ions having noble gas electron configurations in ionic compounds (see Table 13.5 below) Electron Configuration Group 1A Group 2A Group 3A Group 6A Group 7A H - , Li + Be 2+ [He] Na + Mg 2+ Al 3+ O 2- F - [Ne] K + Ca 2+ S 2- C - [Ar 2 ± note that not all main group elements form ions having noble gas electron configurations (e.g. tin can form both Sn 2+ and Sn 4+ ions in its ionic compounds) Cl [Ar] Rb + Sr 2+ Se 2- Br - [Kr] Cs + Ba 2+ Te 2- I - [Xe]
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2 2 Formation of Binary Ionic Compounds ± what are the factors that influence the stability and the structures of solid binary ionic compounds? ± metals and nonmetals react by transferring electrons to form cations and anions that are mutually attractive ± the resulting ionic compound forms because of the aggregated oppositely charged ions have a lower energy than the original elements but how strongly do the ions attrac each other in the solid 3 ± but how strongly do the ions attract each other in the solid state? ± lattice energy - the energy released when an ionic solid forms from its gaseous ions: ± hypothetical: M + (g) +X - (g) MX (s) Δ H= lattice energy Born-Fajans-Haber Cycle ± lattice energies are difficult to calculate directly – use Hess’s law to determine it indirectly (called the Born- Fajans-Haber cycle) ± consider the formation of LiF(s) from its elements and the energy change associated with each step ± Li (s) +½F 2(g) LiF (s) Δ H o f = -617kJ steps: 1) sublime 1 mol of solid Li (Li (s) Li (g) ) 4 2) ionize 1 mol Li
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Lecture_20 - Today's Lecture Bonding: General Concepts 13.4...

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