Lecture_24 - Todays Lecture Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 14.1...

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1 1 Covalent Bonding: Orbitals Today’s Lecture 14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model 1 Valence Bond Theory - Hybridization ± sp 3 hybridization forms a set of four sp 3 hybrid orbitals ± all of identical shape (assume all of equal energy as well) ± spatial orientation: tetrahedral set of sp 3 hybrid orbitals at angles of 109.5 o ± sp 2 hybridization forms a set of three sp 2 hybrid orbitals ± all of identical shape (assume all of equal energy as well) ± spatial orientation: trigonal planar set of sp 2 hybrid orbitals at angles of 120 o 2 ± sp hybridization forms a set of two sp hybrid orbitals ± all of identical shape (assume all of equal energy as well) ± spatial orientation: linear set of sp hybrid orbitals at angles of 180 o
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2 2 sp 3 d Hybridization ± consider PCl 5 Cl P Cl C Cl P and other third row (and higher) elements are able to expand beyond the octet by ± VSEPR theory predicts that 5 electron pairs around the central P atom will arrange in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry ± account for the bonding using VBT by combining the 3s Cl Cl using the 3d (or higher) empty orbitals 3 and three 3p and one 3d atomic orbitals of P to produce a trigonal bipyramidal set of five sp 3 d hybrid orbitals (in this case the hybrid orbitals are not all equivalent - see next slide) ± consider P as using a sp 3 d (or dsp 3 ) hybridization scheme sp 3 d Hybridization (cont’d) ± a trigonal bipyramidal set of
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This note was uploaded on 06/27/2009 for the course CHEM CHEM 121 taught by Professor Peggy during the Spring '09 term at Simon Fraser.

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Lecture_24 - Todays Lecture Covalent Bonding: Orbitals 14.1...

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