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Covalent Bonding: Orbitals
Today’s Lecture
14.1 Hybridization and the Localized Electron Model
1
Valence Bond Theory - Hybridization
sp
3
hybridization forms a set of four sp
3
hybrid orbitals
all of identical shape (assume all of equal energy as well)
spatial
orientation:
tetrahedral
set
of
sp
3
hybrid
orbitals at angles of 109.5
o
sp
2
hybridization forms a set of three sp
2
hybrid orbitals
all of identical shape (assume all of equal energy as well)
spatial orientation: trigonal planar set of sp
2
hybrid
orbitals at angles of 120
o
2
sp hybridization forms a set of two sp hybrid orbitals
all of identical shape (assume all of equal energy as well)
spatial orientation: linear set of sp hybrid orbitals at
angles of 180
o

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