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Unformatted text preview: 1 1 Liquids and Solids Today’s Lecture 16.2 The Liquid State 16.3 An Introduction to Structures and Types of Solids 16.4 Structure and Bonding in Metals 1 ¡ many properties of liquids can be explained by considering the intermolecular forces between the particles ¡ surface tension Properties of Liquids ¡ surface tension ¡ capillary action ¡ viscosity ¡ molecules in the interior of a liquid are completely surrounded by other molecules whereas molecules at the surface of a liquid are surrounded by molecules from the Fig. 16.6 2 surface of a liquid are surrounded by molecules from the side and below ¡ this results in an uneven pull on the surface liquid molecules “pulling” them into the body of the liquid ¡ causes a droplet of a liquid to assume the shape that has the minimum surface area - a sphere 2 2 Surface Tension ¡ to increase a liquid’s surface area, molecules must move from the interior of the liquid to the surface - this requires energy as intermolecular forces must be overcome ¡ the resistance of a liquid to an increase in its surface area is called the surface tension of the liquid ¡ surface tension permits an insect such as a water strider to “walk” on water 3 ¡ liquids with strong intermolecular forces have higher surface tensions (i.e. it takes more energy to move an interior molecule to the surface) water Capillary Action ¡ polar liquids also exhibit capillary action - the spontaneous...
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