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Chapters3&4outline - Chapter 3 Arctic A Outline...

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Chapter 3: Arctic A. Outline CHAPTER 3: THE ARCTIC I. Environment A. Geography and climate 1. Ice, water, little vegetation 2. A “desert” 3. Low biological activity 4. High Arctic permanently frozen 5. Low Arctic or tundra, permafrost B. Land animals: caribou, musk ox, bears, wolves, fox, weasel, mink, hares, rodents. Also birds, ducks, fish. C. Marine animals: seal most important, 19 species of whales, walrus, dolphin II. Divisions of the Arctic people A. Eskimo B. Aleut C. Since C. 14,000 BP D. Impact of Europeans 1. Disease 2. Increased violence 3. Depletion of game 4. Increased dependency on traders 5. Population loss of 90% III. Four basic cultural divisions of the Arctic A. Aleut, in Aleutian Islands, warmer climate, fish and sea mammals B. Western Eskimo, coastal and forest environment, salmon C. Northern Eskimo, northern coast, sea mammals D. Greenland Eskimo, coast of Greenland, whales and sea mammals IV. Typical Arctic Family A. Band level, nuclear family B. Bilateral kinship, arranged marriages, polygamy OK, divorce simple C. Children highly valued and loved D. Infanticide only if couldn’t feed child 1. Mainly females 2. Males needed for hunting 3. Child not considered human until named E. Dog is important domesticated animal F. Disputes settled in song contests V. Economics A. Average family ate seal, other sea mammals, fish, and caribou if available B. Men hunted C. Women prepared clothing, worked skins, cared for children D. Boats 1. kayak: for men, like a living being 2. umiak: women’s, rowed, rich man’s boat E. Hunting 1. Killed whales with harpoons, atlatls, sealskin floats 2. Hunter must show respect to animal’s soul VI. Houses and Clothing A. Snow houses used only in winter by Northern Eskimo B. Large, permanent semi-subterranean dome houses more common 1. Made of driftwood and whalebones
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2. Sod and moss C. Three major items of clothing 1. Hooded parka 2. Pants 3. Mukluks (watertight sealskin boots) 4. Also used mittens 5. Skins worn in layers, hair on inside D. Seal oil for warmth and light E. Specialized knife was ulu, used by women to skin, butcher, and cut VII. Religion A. Most important: maintaining relationship with animals to ensure cooperation when hunted B. All beings have souls, sometimes more than one C. Humans have three souls: 1. Afterlife 2. Breath that died with body 3. Name soul D. Human and Animals connected by having souls and awareness E. Shaman, primary religious practitioner, controlled supernatural, luck, illness, cast warfare spells. Mainly men or post-menopausal women F. Sedna VIII. Effects of Westernization A.
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Chapters3&4outline - Chapter 3 Arctic A Outline...

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