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Chapter 7 Outline

Chapter 7 Outline - Chapter 7 Outline Great Basin I...

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Chapter 7 Outline: Great Basin I. Geography and Environment A. Interior basin between Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains 1. Includes Mojave and Great Basin Deserts 2. Includes many rivers, lakes, and marshes B. Culture area incorporates all people speaking Numic languages, Snake River Plain, portions of Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Idaho C. Highly varied environment from alpine zones to arid regions D. More than 150 small mountain ranges and valleys E. Arid climate, hot summers and cold winters F. Pinyon nut staple food G. Waterfowl, mountain sheep, deer, pronghorn antelope, beavers until trapped out, fish II. Paleoindian Period (c. 12,000 BP to 10,000 BP) A. Exploited Pleistocene lakes B. Hunted big game, mobile, few in number III. Archaic Period (c.10,000 BP to Contact) A. Warmer, drier conditions, fewer animals B. Desert Archaic adaptation C. Three main periods 1. Early, c.9000 BP to 4000 BP: general h and g, atlatls 2. Middle, c.4000 BP to 1500 BP: cooler and wetter, more plants and animals 3. Late, c. 1500 BP to 200 BP: warmer, drier, bow and arrow introduced from north D. Numic peoples, c. 1000 BP, expanded across Basin from SW E. Fremont culture, after c. 1600 BP: farmers, also h and g IV. Contact Period A. SW, raided Spanish and Pueblo groups, spread of horses B. Most contact relatively late, late 1700s with Spanish C. Before 1840, mostly Euroamerican trappers and traders D. John Fremont, 1843; Mormons, 1840s; American ranchers, 1860s E. Military conflicts few 1. 1865 massacre of Northern Paiute 2. 1858 Bannock War 3. 1859 Pyramid Lake War 4. Treaties between 1846 and 1906, allotment F. European Impact 1. Loss or destruction of habitat and resources 2. 1905, Derby Dam across Truckee River destroyed N. Paiute economic base 3. Diseases 4. Decrease in population V. Political Organization A.
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