Test 3 -- family and religion -- ONLINE -- Spring 2008

Test 3 -- family and religion -- ONLINE -- Spring 2008 -...

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Unformatted text preview: Test 3 Study Guide Family and Religion (chapter 13) Introduction to Sociology ONLINE Macionis defines the family as a social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including any children. He points out that all societies contain families, but exactly who people call their kin has varied through history and varies today from one culture to another. In the U.S., a family is officially defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as a group of two or more people who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who live together. Macionis notes that some people (including many sociologists) object to this narrow definition of a family and recognize a broader definition of a family: people with or without legal or blood ties who feel they belong together and define themselves as a family. This broader definition of a family is sometimes called a family of affinity . This latter definition of a family includes cohabiting couples (whether heterosexual or gay) as families. Organizations such as governmental agencies and businesses are increasingly recognizing families of affinity when determining who should receive health care benefits, pension benefits, etc. What is the difference between an extended family and a nuclear family ? What is endogamy ? What is exogamy ? What are the reasons for each? Understand the term monogam y. In what areas of the world is it most common? Understand the terms polygamy , polygny, and polyandry. In what areas of the world is polygamy most common? Polyandry has been very rare; it has only been documented in 10 societies of the world. 1 Macionis notes that most of the worlds societies at some time have permitted more than one marital pattern. However, he notes that most marriages have been monogamous. What are the two reasons for this that he mentions? Understand the terms patrilocality , matrilocality , and neolocality. In which types of societies is each pattern most common? Understand the terms patrilineal , matrilineal , and bilateral (are all patterns of descent). In a patriarchal society, males have the most power and prestige. In a matriarchal society, females have the most power and prestige. Macionis notes that in industrial societies such as the United States . more egalitarian families are evolving. What two examples does he give that support the idea that the U.S. is still patriarchal to some degree? Understand the functionalist perspective on the family and the criticisms of this perspective. Understand the conflict perspective on the family and the criticisms of this perspective. Understand the social-exchange approach to the family. What influences the elements of exchange in patriarchal societies? What has been the effect of more women becoming employed?...
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This note was uploaded on 06/28/2009 for the course SOC 31540 taught by Professor Kalynalesyna during the Spring '08 term at Palomar.

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Test 3 -- family and religion -- ONLINE -- Spring 2008 -...

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