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3000-HW1-Sample Soln 2

3000-HW1-Sample Soln 2 - ""\flvume f/wfl J3“ 6...

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Unformatted text preview: #- "" \flvume f/wfl J3“! 6?) — 1/25/08 Civil Engineering Syste s is growing. Some pro; ections have the population reaching 9.1 billion . With this increase in population the world’s energy needs will double in ards usin ewable resources to reduce the impact on the environment. Warns—in. e eloped countries and developing regions naturally have very different problem n 2020 the leading cause of disability adjusted life-years will be heart disease (Bloom). Naturally, obesity and diabetes will be less of a problem in underdeveloped countries, but as for countries like the United States, this is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. 2. / Global climate change is indeed a true problem that needs to be dealt with. Not »\ only is it an issue, but it is getting worse much faster than most experts predicted. The earth is “sick” and is fighting a fever. The effects of this illness can be seen in massive / natural disasters. The human race is at fault because of the enormous amounts of carbon 0) dioxide that are being released into the atmosphere. There have been heated debates in the past centered on anthropomorphic climate change, but an overwhelming amount Err (WMCCZ: IffoLlQ _ people are starting to realize that human actions are seriously affecting the global climate. Even the most stubborn doubters of anthropomorphic climate change, like President Bush, have been convinced by recent findings and public: outcry. Levels of carbon dioxide in the air are astounding. These high concentrations are probably the reason that 19 of the 20 hottest years on record have occurred since 1980. The warming effects of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could lead to melting enough land based ice to raise shorelines, like on Greenland, and engulf coastal cities in water. Feedback loops such as the melting of permafrost, the loss of reflective glaciers and warming oceans can cause accelerated global warming Of particular interest is the Gulf Stream slowing. This air stream warms the United Kingdom, but could possibly change enough to drastically change the U.K’s climate/ There is evidence that people want to act to i prove the situation, but want even more for the government to act first. Regardless onZ-‘here the change comes from, action needs to be taken. Level of carbon dioxide will ri in the near future no matter what changes occur, but stabilization and reduction 21177 certainly possible. One way in which Civil Engineers could have exacerbated global warming is by causing deforestation for large projects. The benefits of each project can be debated, but the overall effect of deforestation for things 3 ch as transportation projects has an effect on the Earth’s ability to control carbon diOXj/é: levels (Working Group 1). This second way is not exactly an o tright overlooking of the environment, but more of a result of a lack of knowledge. uildings in the United States account for 42% of all energy use in the United States (Su tainable Buildings). Large buildings that have been built in the past have been terribly 'nefficient. The increase in population coupled With the continuation of inefficient buil ing codes have had a large impact on global warming. Another way Civil Engineers ould be at fault is by inefficiently planning cities and roads. Gridlock and traffic accoyiirt for a large amount of wasted gasoline. In New York City alone, 242 million gallon of gasoline were wasted in traffic in 2005 (UTCM). One way Civil Engineers 0 improve the situation is to adhere to green building standards such as the Leadership i Energy and Environmental Design, LEED. By increasing energy efficiency and sing improved materials in buildings, a large amount of energy can be saved. Another way Civil En 'neers can reduce carbon emission is by improving mass tr sportation. This include 1mproving aging infrastructure to ensure reliability as well as e anding mass transpo ation into areas where there is limited access. A last way that 'vil Engineers can improve the global warming situation is to promote c' anning laws when designing cities. By reducing urban sprawl with zoning codes, such as in Portland, Oregon, cities can be built with an increasing population density leading to more transportation efficiency. 3. The caliber of a Civil Engineer will change by the year 2025, but not solely as a result of changes made in the professional realm. The improvements made to Civil Engineers will first occur in universities. Industry’s problems will be brought into the classroom and be used to bolster engineering students’ education. This improved cooperation between industry and university will provide the foundation for a Civil Engineer that will face increasingly difficult problems and take on larger amounts of responsibility. The goal of every Civil Engineer will be to work towards creating a sustainable world. A sustainable world is one that provides all of the needs of the current population without compromising the needs of future generations. However, Civil Engineers will be dedicated to not only meeting these needs, but providing an extraordinarily high quality equity, but these concerns will be addressed in all future designs. To achieve these goals, Civil Engineers will 11 t only have t innovators, but also be extremely adept at working with other profe ionals. The complex problems of tomorrow will need to be solved by a coalition f 'neers, scientists, economists, of life. This will be a difficult goal due to shrinking resources and T? for social ensure a high standard of living for the futur . Once in the professional field, Civ' ngineers will have to maintain their knowledge as well as utilize new te ogies. Those with specialized knowledge will be able to receive certification noting their ability. Overall, the Civil Engineer of 2025 will be similar to today’s Civil Engineer, but with a much more focused approach on sustainabi ' ‘ a more direct path to the government, an affinity for working wi o essionals o ifferent areas and a better concept of risk management. in the' future and causing minimal negative ecological impacts. Therefore, 16 transportation system is one that 1s built and maintained without significant (b) In order to compare the sustainability of the Atlanta and Chicago transportation systems, three performance measures will be used. The first performance measure is the Travel Time Index. This performance measure is an appropriate measure to indicate whether or not stakeholders are satisfied. The second performance measure is excess fuel consumed. This performance measure shows whether or not a system is meeting the sustainable level of resource base impact. The third and last performance measure is Urban Area information which includes not only population statistics, but developed area ' 6 im e en nt and agallows for the transportation of people/ a» :flqydlé a on considerable amounts of ngestin \ in?— statistics. Thisxfierformance measure provides crucial insight into thes sprawling growth of city whi can lead to increased traffic and consequent Wntal problems. This re is an indicator of ecosystem impact. improved 3 spots from 8 to ll w 1 it’s 1 Time Index has 1.34 in the same time frame. This means that a trip that would a e 20 minutes without any traffic now takes 26.2 minutes with congestion factored in. As for Chicago, in the same 5 years their rank has lowered to 2 meaning they are the second worst area in terms of this statistic. From 2000 to 2005, Chicago’s Index 6%? at... 6 comparison will begin with the Travel m; Inde anta’s rank from 2000 4L y'vCQ /" has gone from 1.34 to 1.47. Certainly, neither po ulati n is all that satisfied with these statistics. The next measure is excess fuel consumed. tlanta’s rank has gone from 2nd to 3rd worst in 5 years with 44 gallons of fuel being wasted per traveler per year. This number is down from the 52 gallons in Chicago’s rank has gone fro 25 to 17 with an increase of 8 gallons per yea . Its total now at 32 gallons wa ed. While Atlanta wa tes more gas and is re otfiietrime t to the resource base, Chicago’s 6 more interesting. heir ra has go ten much worse 0 er the course of 5 ich leads one to belie e that the ste ent to the resource base. The last measure is Urban Area information. Atlanta /s Urban Area has increased from 2, 550 to 3,050 (square miles). This means that Atlanta’s mcrease in population 1s not occurring in a sustainable fashion, but rather creatingurban sprawl which will only contribute to future traffic problems. Chicago’s Urban Area has increased from 2, 775 to 2 ,,800 a negligible 1nc1ease. Overall, Atlanta and Chicagt/ both have hi unsustainable transportation systems. Both have large amounts of congestion ich leads to fuel being wasted and stakeholders beingS unpleased. After considering akeholder satisfaction, resource base IS only going to b ome more of a impacts d e m impacts acco ding to P6 rce and Vanegas, it appears that Atlanta is t ast us ama le system of the wo. Th amount of fuel wasted 1n Atlanta IS C 6) s ggering and Urban Area statistics how t t it will only get worse with a tremendous 1ncrease of urban sprawl. (0) Two additional performancfihat would have 1mproved the study are Public Transportation and Peak Travelers. a city’s Public Transportation statistics are very good, it would provide a great boost to stakeholder satisfaction. Peak Travelers is also a good statistic because it depicts how much an increase in population is contributing directly to congestion. 4W 7 ~ Q” U a V \M Q }.»‘ -1: A 9641‘) : rx/CMULU Wfljflwwwk Works Cited Amekudzi, A. “CEE 3000: Civil Engineering Systems Course Overview” Jan 2008. Lecture in Civil Engineering Systems. Bloom, Barry R. “Public Health in Transition.” Scientific American Special Issue Crossroads for Planet Earth Sep 2005. Cohen, Joel E. “Human Population Grows Up” cSientific American Specigl/ Issue: Crossroads for Planet Earth Sep 2005 / Hughes, Joseph B. “Sustainability, Energy, & Environment”. Jan 2()//8. Guest Lecture in Environmental Engineering Principles CEE 2300. / Levin, Hal. “Sustainable Buildings” 2006. Building Ecology. <http: //Www. buildingecology. corn/free _article_ detail. pl/p?id=23&title=Sustainab1 e__Buildings> Pearce, A. R and Vanegas, J. A. “Defining Sustainability for Built Environmental Systems: an Operational Framewor’ ’International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management Vol.2, 1/2/3, 2002 University Transportation Center for Mobility. “Urban <http://mobiv_lity.tamu.edu/ums/> obility Information” 2007. Working Group 1 “The Physics Science Basis of Cli te Change” 2007. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. http://ipcc—wgl .ucar.edu/wg1/wg1— report.html> Zwingle, Erla. “Cities — Challenges for Humanity’ 2002. National Geographic Magazine Nov ...
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