3000-HW1-Sample Soln 3

3000-HW1-Sample Soln 3 - 631441515 WW1 Pon Professor...

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Unformatted text preview: 631441515 WW1 Pon Professor Amekudzi CEE 3000 25 January 2008 Homework One: CEE 3000-A / N) 3 As r cognized by the United Nations, the world today has many sustainability problems that requir attention on the international level. The problems of clean air and water, effective transpo tion, and collating international efforts are the greatest proble the cre ion of sustainable systems and therefore need the most glob attention. First, one out of every six people on the earth is unable to ‘ ' tion, and get access to proper health care (Sachs 5 6). Infect' us diseases remain a threat to all countries due to these unavoidable demands of any human pulation (Bloom 57). In the city of Sao Paolo, two thirds 0 'ts population lives in poverty whil the rich get richer and the poor get poorer. (Zwingle 9 -92) This case is similar in Lagos, Ni ria and many other growing cities in developing nati . In many of these third world areas, 5 tary sewage disposal is the process 0 globalization safer. In dition, transportation in congested areas is becoming nearly impossible in some of the world’ fastest growing and most important cites. As the cities of the world grow and urban populatio s increase (60 % of world’s population will live in cities by 2030) (Zwingle 89), this pro em will only con ' ue to cause grief for the governments of these mega-cities across the world. s cites grow an spread across the landscape, decentralized transportation causes traffic conge ion in areas su as Lagos, Bangkok, and Sao Paolo (Zwingle 93, 96). This problem is one at exists in bo developing and developed areas and therefore needs to be addressed by ments on b levels. But the eatest problem in solving these issues, I believe, is the cooperation on the global level must take place in finding sustainable solutions. As shown in the city of Hyderabad, dia, effective management and communication enable regions to emerge from a developing tatus to a state of vision and progress (Zwingle 109). If this was brought to practice on the int ational level, the cooperation of countries in creating sustainable systems will provide lutions to problems that plague developing and developed nations. MW «1W. Mala. (6 e.§~f goo/COO... article on global warming begins by immediately emphas mg the threats of global 2. T WAILIIg cluding flash floods, climate change, and its” impact on humanity. The image of the earth as an organism is set in place and the earth’s response to global warming is compared to that of one fighting a fever. Only this fever is a clima attacks the environment around it. A category 5 cyclone swept through northern Australwwdonesians were forced from their homes due to flooding. Glaciers across the world are melting into the oceans (14). This ice and much along the polar ice caps are vital in reflecting sunlight and its energy back into space. This in turn causes a feedback loop that eventually causes warmer oceans, more atmospheric gasses, and a skewing of certain ocean currents which in turn influence the weather (1 7). Permafrost and the ice that covers many land surfaces is melting causing some areas, including the western United States to experience drier seasons than in previous years. Other areas are losing water in the soil due to increased evaporation caused by higher temperatures. In turn, this dry landscape is more susceptible to wild fires and less hospitable to the species that occupy these ecosystems. These fires emit more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (18). These problems have caused nearly everyone to take notice and attempt to make a connection between human actions and this change in the earth’s climate. The nited Nations has somewhat reluctantly admitted to this global issue stating that “w g o e climate system is unequivocal” and hints towards the industrial activi 0% a cause 0 e increased carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which in turn W5 thé’éffectiven of the atmosphere in releasing solar energy back into space. Public support groups have éen formed to back up environmental legislation in hopes to curb the climate issues that face in the future (15-16). (0 b.v~n+46[~j‘j h . Thirdly, civil engineers can exacerbate this problem simply through inaction. By refusing to ddress this issue in the creation 8 ever increasing enigma. However, civil engineers can also be part of the solut' n. The first way of accomplishing this involves taking into consideration the environmental ' ' This can lead to the conservation of resources at would orsen the atmospheric condition if (Pearce,Vanegas 101). Secondly, engineers can se their ositions as leaders and innovators to influence government actions that in turn better e env' onmental situation. This includes supporting the reduction of carbon emissions fro ind trial facilities and managing the disposal of waste materials within environmentally friendl e lations. Finally, civil engineers can lead the way to the development of new technologies that can be incorporated in the solutions to present global warming problems. These solutions include new forms of energy, better waste processors, more effective ways of transit and a variety of other technological solutions capable of being created by civil engineers. By continuing to adapt and change with the world and ' s . needs, engineers can help ensure the success of the human population in solving the probl 06 global warming one step at a time.l D 1 All references in the answer to number 2, unless otherwise cited are to the article “Global Warming: When a Planet Fights a Fever” from the online Time article source, hence the use of primary source parenthetical citation. “Today’s civil engineers must transform themselves to meet the challenges of tomorrow. ey must stay abreast of the changing technologies, market trends, and business developments (“The Vision...” 70).” This quote from the article “The Vision for Civil Engineering in 2025” embodies the one quality that an engineer must have in order to succeed, the ability to change and adapt with the world around him. He must pOSSes a wide range of skills that enable him to ffectively communicate and interact with the shifting environment around him. The world of 25 will be one of fewer resources, greater consumption, and increased population and infrastructures. The United Nations Millennium Declaration emphasized several goals needed to be achieved by 2015, one of which was the need to ensure environm 1 sustainability and develop an international partnership for cooperation in achieving ese goals (“The Vision. . .” 68). Civil engineers will play one of the most important roles in aking sure these goals are obtainable. 2025 will have demands for new energy sources, 0 an air and water as well as safer waste disposal. But how will the civil engineer of tomorrow eet all these needs? First he will need a firm knowledge of the changin world and e application of the latest in engineering techniques. Colleges must provi e cutting edg curriculum that not only provides a foundation for engineering career but also mforms the s ' ' career’s environment (“The Vision...” 70). Secondly, future civil engineers will need to effectively c most effective sustainable systems. And in order to co ' ate in the social arena, civil engineers must be able to use the most up—to-date techni es in wireless and onsite communication to stay in touch with every member of a roj ect team in order to work efficiently (“The Vision...” 69). ‘3 Thirdly and finally, the future civil engineer rn st be a “master innovator and integrator” in order to be a leader in the development 0 new tee ologies. New technologies are instrumental in finding solutions to the future ust ' ability problems on a global scale and civil engineers must realize that technological famili ' will 1e them to solve these international issues (“The Vision. . .”68-69). So in summation, the civil engineer of 2025 onwards must obtain a solid education that emphasizes adaptation, be an effective comm ' ator in order to interact both with his project team and the surrounding public, and learn master the innovative technologies around him. This engineer will be the one t attack and c quer the global engineering problems of the future. q (,0 4. A. In order to define a sustainable transit system clearly one must break this term down into separate definitions. First what is a system? A system serves a pecific purpose while remaining dynamic and changes over time. Most systems in the mode world are open systems and have the ability to flex and respond to changes in the environm t while still staying operational (Hallsmith 66). So what makes a system sustainable? 6 primary parameters can be used to define sustainability; the human species, resources, an ecosystems (Pearce, Vanegas 100). A sustainable system enhances and meets the basic nee of the human population around it, limits consumption of natural resources, and keeps enviro ental impact to a So with these basic definitions in mind, a sustainable transit yst m is one that meets all these criteria while still maintaining an effective transportation sta in its service as a system. It limits the consumption of materials, fuel and other resources put into e system, runs efficiently and reliably for the human population that uses it without con ' ued congestion, and also does not affect the surrounding ecosystems by reducing emissio into the atmosphere as well as waste that must be processed. B. Three of the important performance measures the consumption of fuel, the amount of delays system has been fifth in fuel consumptio/ ste 11y over the past few years. The Chicago system has been third consistently over the past f ears. Atlanta peak travelers consume more excess fuel while Chicago consumes more fiiel overall. Congestion cost is greater overall in Chicago but less per peak traveler. Delays are greater overall in Chicago but nce again fewer per peak traveler than in Atlanta. So it would seem that the Chicago sys m meets the basic needs of each individual peak traveler better than the Atlanta system. How er since thE Chicago system consumes more fuel overall it depletes the resources base and has a greater overall effect on the atmosphere in respect to carbon emissions, and therefore'a greater overall negative effect on the environment around it. Furthermore, Atlanta’s system shows a decrease in excess fiiel consumption per peak traveler while Chicago’s has shown a steady increase. Also the Atlanta system shows that it needs fewer increases in carpoglers and lane miles in order to maintain the current levels of congestion to match traffic increases. So my answer has two sides. Presently, I believe that the Chicago system currently meets ” e needs of its consumers and minimizes resource consumption per person better as wel This is amazing because the system deals with a much greater population with a greater numb r of travelers. So I believe it to be the better current system. However, Atlanta’s system ems t be dealing better with changes (decreasing number of rush hours and delay hours per pe tra eler) and if its statistics continue to follow the trends of the past few years, the system sho s tential to fulfill the requirements of a sustainable system depending on how it adapts to ture changes in the population and infrastructure. at can be gathered from these data tables are the cost of updating the system. The Atlanta (For reference to the tables for part b, see the TTI data tables fiom the “2007 Urban Mobility Report” for Atlanta and Chicago) C. I would like to see the number of carbon emissions per vehicle during peak travel hours in each system in order to better analyze environmental impact. I would also like to see the costs of public transit during peak hours and see that trend over the past decade in order to see its adjustment to increased population growth and infrastructure. 4%] .9 Works Cited /// /’ Bloom, Barry R. “Public Health in Transition,” Scientific American Special Issue: Crossroads for Planet Earth, September 2005. / / “Global Warming: When a Planet Fights a Fever.” Time MagazineVDecember 2007. Hallsmith, Gwendolyn. “Systems Thinking for Communities,” Chapter 4, The Key to Sustainable Cities, Meeting Human Needs, Transforming Community Systems, New Society Publishers, 2003. Pearce, A. R. and Vanegas, J .A. “Defining Sustainability for Built Environment Systems: an Operational Framework,” International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 2, Nos. 1/2/3, 2002. ' Sachs, Jeffery D.“Can Extreme Poverty be Eliminated?”. Scientific American Special Issue: Crossroads for Planet Earth, September 2005. “The Vision for Civil Engineering in 2025.” Civil Engineering, August 2007. “2007 Urban Mobility Report.” Texas Transporta on Institute, 2007. Zwingle, Erla. “Cities-Chal nges for Hum .” National Geographic Magazine, November 2002. ‘ O ...
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3000-HW1-Sample Soln 3 - 631441515 WW1 Pon Professor...

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