MSE2001H_2_2 - Chapter 2 Atomic Scale Structures 1. 2. 3....

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1 1. Introduction 2. Atomic Structure 3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics 4. Primary Bonds 5. Bond-Energy Curve 6. Atomic Packing 7. Secondary Bonds 8. Mixed Bonds Chapter 2 Atomic Scale Structures
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2 Thermodynamics The study of the relationships between the thermal properties of matter and the external system variables such as pressure, temperature, and composition Thermodynamic considerations are fundamental in determining whether chemical and physical reactions can occur. Kinetics Regarding to how rapidly reactions can proceed. Æ Reaction Rate Properties and Behaviors of Materials
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3 Thermodynamics The study of the relationships between the thermal properties of matter and the external system variables such as pressure, temperature, and composition The study of the changes in the state or condition of a substance when changes in its temperature, state of aggregation, or its internal energy are important. Properties such as temperature, pressure, internal energy, and entropy System Surroundings Universe = System + Surroundings System Isolated & non-isolate Æ Interaction Æ mass Æ Energy
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4 The Laws of Thermodynamics 0. Zeroth law of thermodynamics , stating that thermodynamic equilibrium is an equivalence relation. If two thermodynamic systems are separately in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other. 1. First law of thermodynamics , about the conservation of energy The change in the internal energy of a closed thermodynamic system is equal to the sum of the amount of heat energy supplied to the system and the work done on the system. A B C A B C Equil Equil Equil Equil Equil They are obtained from a wide variety of observations , and ultimately justified by the agreement of the conclusions drawn from them with experiment. dw dQ dU =
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5 The Laws of Thermodynamics 3. Third law of thermodynamics , about absolute zero temperature As a system asymptotically approaches absolute zero of temperature all processes virtually cease and the entropy of the system asymptotically approaches a minimum value; also stated as: "the entropy of all systems and
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This note was uploaded on 06/29/2009 for the course MSE 2001 taught by Professor Tannebaum during the Spring '08 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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MSE2001H_2_2 - Chapter 2 Atomic Scale Structures 1. 2. 3....

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