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11-Code-Generation - CS 421 Lecture 11 Code generation...

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CS 421 Lecture 11: Code generation square4 Lecture outline square4 Compiler structure square4 Run-time environment square4 Execution of static languages square4 Code optimization – why? square4 Code generation square4 Code optimization – how? 6/23/2009 1
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Compiler structure square4 For traditional (static) languages: Source Front end AST Back end Machine language 6/23/2009 2 Symbol table
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Review: front end Source Lexer Token file Scanner Tokenizer 6/23/2009 3 AST Parser Symbol table Type checking
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Back end Generate intermediate representation IR Machine- independent optimization SymTable AST square4 Intermediate representation (IR) is simpler to operate on than machine language 6/23/2009 4 Machine language Code generation IR
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Run-time environment square4 Once we have the program in machine code, how do we run it? square4 Instructions executed directly on HW square4 OS calls? square4 Variables? square4 Function/procedure calls? square4 Memory architecture square4 Information about the program 6/23/2009 5
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Run-time environment square4 Memory layout: 6/23/2009 6
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Run-time environment square4 Stack structure: Local variables Stack before calling a routine FP SP
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