MNS320_Ch1part2_6perpage

MNS320_Ch1part2_6perpage - What is ecology The study of the...

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Ecological principles What is ecology? The study of the relationship between organisms and environment. (Haeckel) The study of the distribution and abundance of organisms. (Andrewartha and Birch 1954) The study of ecosystems. (Odum 1971) What is ecology? The scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter. (Cary Institute for Ecosystem Studies) How do we organize things? individual (species) population community ecosystem all other individuals of same species other populations in an area physical & chemical environment, other communities examples??? What is an ecosystem? A functional unit of variable size, composed of living and nonliving parts that interact System function involves energy and the transfer of energy energy flows through ecosystems, whereas elements cycle
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Trophic structure autotroph heterotroph heterotroph etc… trophic level heat & metabolism 80-95% heat & metabolism 80-95% food chain food web Trophic pyramids biomass pyramid standing crop/stock energy pyramid food web Abiotic components Chemical elements & compounds cycle through and between the abiotic & biotic components of ecosystems Biogeochemical cycles have: – reservoir – sink – self-regulating feedback cycles Carbon cycle Phosphorus cycle
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Nitrogen cycle
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