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search-uninformed-2up - Artificial Intelligence CS4365...

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1 Artificial Intelligence CS4365 --- Spring 2009 Uninformed Search Reading: Sections 3.1-3.4, R&N 2 Problem Solving as Search Search is a central topic in AI — Originated with Newell and Simon’s work on problem solving. Famous book: “Human Problem Solving” (1972) — Automated reasoning is a natural search task — More recently: Given that almost all AI formalisms (planning, learning, etc.) are NP-complete or worse, some form of search is generally unavoidable (no “smarter” algorithm available) .
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3 Defining a Search Problem State space – described by initial state – starting state actions – possible actions available successor function; operators – given a particular state x , returns a set of <action, successor> pairs 4 A path is any sequence of states connected by a sequence of actions. Goal test – determines whether a given state is a goal state. Path cost – function that assigns a cost to a path; relevant if more than one path leads to the goal, and we want the shortest path. Assumption: cost of a path is the sum of the costs of the individual actions along the path; sum of the step costs , which must be non-negative.
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5 The 8-Puzzle States: Initial state: Goal test: Successor function: Path cost: 6 Cryptarithmetic SEND + MORE ------ MONEY Find substitution of digits for letters such that the resulting sum is arithmetically correct.
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