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chapter 16 - 7 - Chm 16 Psywopamolooy 85.7 Psychological...

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Unformatted text preview: Chm 16 Psywopamolooy 85.7 Psychological Risk Factors [Unipolar depression is often precipitated by an Identifiable life crisis. But such stresses need not have that affect depending on situational factors such as good social support and ”mental setn factors of construai. i.a.. how he thinks about the stresses when they orriveJ Beck's Co gnitive Theory of Depression [Aaron Beck believes that beliefs produce moods. not the converse. He argues that depression stems from a set of intensely negative and irrational beliefs that some people hold and by which they interpret whatever happens to them] [The triad of these beliefs that form the core of a negative cognitive scheme are: H worthleseness = Control locus is viewed as internal 8: bad, l.e.. the person feels to hiama for bad outcomes. i.e.. shelhe has a WM: 2) evemigg is wrong = situation is viewed as global & had: 3i the future is bleak = situation is viewed as stable a: bad. i.e., the persons feels halshe wltl always foul-up.) Holplessness and Hopeleasness [The beliefs at the core of Bach's neg ative cognitive scheme may be learned from experience. Martin Seiigman's research with dogs that led to this learned helplessness theog strongly suggests that this Is so [review the research as detailed on 9.221]. [n supports of Seligman argument that learned helplessness in dogs is similar to depression in humans is the fact that the same medication that relieves depression in humans causes the learned helplessness in the dogs to disappear.] (However. not every human becomes depressed who has experienced a series of taiiures as did Seligman's dogs. What then differentiates between people who have bad experiences and don't get depressed and those who have the some bad experiences and DO? Seligman proposes that the answer is the kind of exglanatofl style a person has for looking at and interpreting the world. If the style is pessimistic. that is, if it very closely conforms to the three defining beliefs of Beck's negative cognitive schema. then negative events will lead to depression. if the style is optimistic then they won't, or at least not so readily. Though explanatory style can be learned from experience. as evidently happened with Seiigman's dogs, it won't‘ by itself lead to depression. In terms of the diathesis-stress model. it is only a predisposition lying in wait for the right stressor to come along in order to show its true colors. Note. speaking of diatheses. here is an example of one that is learned. not hereditary] The Social and Cultural Context of Depression [The World Health Organization WHO] ranks depression 4" among all causes of disability worldwide. However, it varies from culture to culture in terms of incidence. being understendably high in war—tom countries. It also varies in terms of aggression rules. for example. being more physical {sleep disturbances. weight loss. heart pain) in Asian countries and more psychological [sadness or apathyl in the West. In terms of SES. major depression is more frequent among lower socioeconomic groups and bipolar disorder is more frequent among the higher [conceivabiy because the behaviors produced during someone's hypomanic phases tend to lead to 'mcreasad accomplishment]. Major depression is also more frequent in women than men for various reasons: 1] The susceptibility genes for depression may lie on the X chromosome of which women have two and men only one. 2) Women must cope with hormonal menstrual cycle. postpartum and menopausal changes having accompanying mood effects. And 31 women tend to ruminate over—bus. amplify—heir problems whiie men tend to distract themselves from their probiems by ”acting out” their distress rather than manifesting it in depression [not necessarily a good thing if the acting-out leads to alcohol and other substance abuse” Mood Disorders and Multicausality [Dear Student. this is where you should do a lot of integration of what has gone before.] ANXIETY DISORDERS [A person with any of the anxieg disorders is chronically apprehensive. always fears the worst. and must guard vigilantly against anticipated disaster. Anxiety disorders effect over 2i} million people each year in - the United States] Phobias [Phobias are characterized by an intense and irrational few, coupied with great efforts to avoid the feared object or situation! Social Phobia [In social phobias the problem is fear of embarrassment or humiliation in front of others. Some people display an intense shyness. There is evidence that shyness may have an inherited basis] Specific Phobias [Specific phobias concern particular objects or events. Besides the fear being irrational. it often appears quite quirky in the kind or object or event It focuses upon. Encounters with most phobic stimuli produce leg and. among other emergency sympathetic responses, eieveted blood pressure. However, the blood- inieotion-injury phobia produces disgust and a drop in blood pressure that can lead to fainting] The Conditionan Account of Specific Phobias [Phobias can be learned via classical conditioning [which we studied in Chpt iii. A personal example of one. {my 'taxi cab on the way to the opera“ story}, goes as follows: Some years age, I was ‘at a taxi with a friend on the way to Lincoin Center to see an opera. It was in the gleaming of the evening and the taxi was making a left turn at 63" 81 Broadway when we were hit broadside by another car running a red light. llncidently. it was "hit- and-run“ for which nobody got a license number.] All the windows in the cab were shattered and my friend's a! bow very forcibly tried to enter my ear. After a 'white flash " of pain and ...
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