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chapter 15 - 9 - Chpt 15 Personality 81'9 Behavioral roots...

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Unformatted text preview: Chpt 15 Personality 81 '9 Behavioral roots of social-cognitive theories [From Albert Bandura’s perspective. personality is a reflection of the situations a person has been exposed to in the past, and the expectations {including ”self” ex pectations or self-efficaciesi that have been gleaned from those situations] Cognitive roots of social—cognitive theories [Walter Mischel. like his teacher George Kelly. contends that the qualifies that form personality are essentially cognitive: different ways of seeing the world, thinking about it. and interacting with it. all acquired over the course of an individual's life . For each person this is done in terms of herfhis cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS! which consists of five key qualities on which people can differ: ‘Ii the person's e noodlngs, the set of constgals by which he interprets inner and outer experiences. 2i his eggeotanciee and befiefs about the world which include the outcome expectations and sense of self-efficacy stressed by Bandura, 3) his emotional resmnses to situations, 4| his goals and values, the set of outcomes that are considered desirable. and Si his compentencies and self-regulatory glen , the way an individual regulates hlsfher own behavior by various self-imposed goats and strategies] Key Social-Cognitive Concepts Control Attributional style [Across social-cognitive theorists. three concepts play a crucial: control. attributions! styie {which refers to how we typically explain the things that happen in our lives]. and eelf—control.l ’{The importance of batting a sense at control over one's life. Rats that can terminate shock don't get ulcers while their yoked controls who can' t do get ulcers. Elderly nursingvhome patients in Judy Radio's "Geranium" study who . were given control of taking care of their own geranium: lived longer than those whose geraniums were cared for ‘ by the nursing-home staff.] . *{From lecture: Julian Flutter and Externai vs internal Locus of Perceived Control-dilate: there can be negative as well as positive attributions as to the locus of control being internal or extemal. Relationships of perceived locus of control to parenting patterns and to learned helplessness] i*[Locus of contml concems an individual's beliefs about the effectiveness of her own actions. A related system of beliefs [attributions] stifle} concerns the causes to which she habitually attributes whatever good or bad fortunes may befall her. Being prone to depression Is consisted with a tendency to attribute unfortunate events to internal. global, and stable curses] Self—control *[Expectancias about control represent one category of personaflty differences that sociai teaming theorists have considered. Another concerns differences in patterns of self-regulation. especially self-control. Control refers to an individual‘s ability to do what he wants to do. Self-control refers to his ability to refrain from doing some of the things he wants to do lor doing some things he would rather no do! in order to get what he really wants some time in the future. Delay of Gratification in the service of the ego Hartman. Kris, Br Lowenstein proposed that the infant comes into the world with a primitive ego —— that is. an in—bom tendency to inhibit impulsivity in the face of frustration so as to be abie to collect information that may be relevant to its obtaining its goals. goals that otherwise would not be obtainable. They proposed that this germ of an ego it reinforced by success will develop a greater and greater ability to postpone gratification so as to obtain goals]. Delay of Gratification in Young Children *[Impulse control in rats and its relationship to leaming. impulse control 'm children—the Mischel Study. Bridging the gap between cause and effect, response and reinforcement. Effects on learning of complex sequences.) Delay of Gratification and Adolescent Competence *[There is a positive relationship between chiidhood ability to delay gratification and later planning and social ability in adolescencesee F'g 15.7. Pay attention to the rate of traits vs situations aid those of learning to delay gratification by utilizing certain cognitive skins. e.g. self-distraction, raavaluating rewards, and sustaining attention to distant goaisJ Contributions of the Social-Cognitive Approach [Dear Student. please review carefuliy.) SOME FINAL THOUGHTS: THE NEED FOR MULTIPLE APPROACHES SUMMARY ...
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