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Module.1.study.guide

Module.1.study.guide - Biology 1510 Module#1 Page 1 of...

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Biology 1510 Module #1 Page 1 of 12 “Strong Inference” By: John R. Platt Strong Inference:  1. Devising alternative hypothesis 2. Devising a crucial experiment w/alternative possible outcomes, each of which  exclude one of the hypothesis 3. Carrying out experiment so as to get clean result 4. Recycling procedure-make new hypotheses/sub-hypotheses to refine the  possibilities that remain “conditional inductive tree” or “logical tree” Inductive inference-not simple and certain like deductive, b/c reaching into unknown Difference in molecular biology-formal inductive inference is practiced and taught Resistance to analytical methodology: - 1958 Conference on Biophysics: Leo Szilard: make small and elegant experiments Cy Levinthal: study the simplest system you think has the properties you  are interested in Bacon: “The induction which is to be available for the discovery and demonstration of  sciences and arts, must analyze nature by proper rejections and exclusions; and then,  after a sufficient number of negatives, come to a conclusion on the affirmative in  stances.” Karl Popper: There is no such thing as proof in science. Science advances only by  disproof Strong inference=method of multiple hypotheses Conflict btwn men becomes purely conflict btwn ideas a theory is not a theory unless it can be disproved - a “theory” that cannot be disproved is not a theory at all, b/c it does not exclude  anything. It predicts everything, and therefore does not predict anything not science but faith; not theory but theology the method oriented man is shackled; the problem oriented man is at least reaching  freely toward what is most important Chapter 1 Lecture: Introduction August 22, 2007 Sex changing: - Why? b/c size advantage - Protogynous: female male - Protandrous: male female - Size-advantage model fails to predict ‘early’ sex change
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Biology 1510 Module #1 Page 2 of 12 Intermediate males are functionally sex-changes, but do not hold the  same mating territories The fitness consequences are enormous Scientific Method: gather data; formulate hypothesis; test hypothesis - hypothesis: tentative explanation, can be falsified p-value: the probability of getting a certain result w/no alterations von Frisch’s experiment - proved-bees can see color and well into UV range - different colored plates…switched around - bee waggle dance-most sophisticated form of communication outside of mammal  world direction of food source in relationship to sun Hierarchical organization:  molecules cells tissues organisms populations communities ecosystem Lecture: What is Science?
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