Module.4.study.guide.part1

Module.4.study.guide.part1 - Biology 1510 Module #4 Part 1...

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Biology 1510 Module #4 Page 1 of 6 Part 1 October 31, 2007 Book: Chapter 12 Page 218-227 12.1 Genome     : genetic information Chromosomes     : packages of DNA Somatic cell     : all body cells excepts the reproductive cells; each contain 46 chromosomes  made up of two sets of 23 Gametes     : reproductive cells; have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells (23) Chromatin     : complex of DNA and associated protein molecules Sister chromatids     : each duplicated chromosome has two of these; initially attached at a  region called centromere Mitosis     : division of the nucleus; genetically identical cells produced Cytokenisis     : usually follows mitosis; division of cytoplasm Meiosis     : yields non-identical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes 12.2 Walther Flemming- used dyes that allowed him to observe for the first time the behavior  of chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis (1882) The Cell Cycle Mitotic (M) phase     : mitosis and cytokinesis; shortest  Interphase     : 90% of cycle; cellgrows and copies chromosomes o G1 phase     : “first gap” growth o S phase     : “synthesis” chromosomes made/growth o G2phase     : “second gap” growth Mitosis: o Prophase     : chromatin condense to chromosomes nucleoli disappears mitotic spindle begins to form centrosomes move away from each other o Prometaphase     : Nuclear envelope fragments Microtubules begin to attach to the chromosomes at the kinetochores  which have appeared o Metaphase     : Longest part of mitosis
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Biology 1510 Module #4 Page 2 of 6 Part 1 Centrosomes now at opposite ends Chromosomes line up at the metaphase plate across center o Anaphase     : Shortedt part Sister chromatids part and move towards poles o Telophase     : Daughter cells begin to form Nuclear envelopes form Chromosomes become less condensed Cytokinesis: animal cells  cleavage furrow Mitotic spindle     : consists of fibers made of microtubules and associated proteins
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This note was uploaded on 07/06/2009 for the course BIOL 1510 taught by Professor Jungh.choi during the Fall '07 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Module.4.study.guide.part1 - Biology 1510 Module #4 Part 1...

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