ch01 - CHAPTER 1 COMPUTERS AND YOU A computer is a machine...

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CHAPTER 1 COMPUTERS AND YOU A computer is a machine that, under a program's direction and control, performs four basic operations: input, processing, output, and storage . A program is a list of instructions that tells the computer how to perform these four simple operations in order to accomplish a task. In the first operation of the information processing cycle , called input , the computer accepts data (unorganized raw materials made up of words, numbers, images, or sounds) that has been represented in a way the computer can use. In the second operation, called processing , the computer performs arithmetic or comparison (logical) operations on the represented data to produce information . In the third operation, called output , the computer can show the results of the processing operation in a way that people can understand. In the fourth operation, storage , the computer saves the results so that they can be used again later. Summarizing; the four basic operations of the information processing cycle can shortly be defined as follows: Input: Getting data into the computer Processing: Transforming data into information Output: Presenting information to the user Storage: Holding programs and data for future use You'll often hear the term computer system , which is normally shortened to system . A computer system is a collection of related components that have all been designed to work together smoothly. Computer systems include both hardware and software , a third vital component of a computer system, namely people , are the ones who create, maintain, and use the computer. Hardware is the physical components of the computer, including the computer itself and various peripheral devices. Software consists of the programs that give the computer’s hardware its step-by-step instructions.
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In a typical desktop personal computer, a keyboard and a mouse provide input capabilities, while the processing is done by the microprocessor (CPU) and RAM (random access memory). You see the results (output) on a monitor, and you typically use a hard disk for long-term storage. Input devices: keyboard, mouse (pointing device), microphone (speech- recognition), digital cameras. Processing devices: motherboard, expansion card, central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM). Output devices: monitor, printer, speakers. Storage devices: hard drive, CD/DVD drive, tape drive, floppy disk A fifth operation: Communications : Moving data within the computer or between computers Communications devices – Enable computers to connect to a computer network Network – Two or more computer systems that are connected Modem – A device that enables the computer to access other computers Types of Computers Computers come in all shapes and sizes, but they can be divided into two major categories: computers for organizations and computers for individuals . Personal
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This note was uploaded on 07/06/2009 for the course BUS BAM315 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '09 term at 東京大学.

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ch01 - CHAPTER 1 COMPUTERS AND YOU A computer is a machine...

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