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Chapter 20 Notes

Chapter 20 Notes - Chapter 20 Notes From Restoration to...

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Chapter 20 Notes From Restoration to Revolution, 1815-1848 I) Introduction A) Many considered revolution to be a bad thing B) Waves of revolution occurred in the 1820s, 1830s, and in 1848 – many failed or were repressed C) The citizen 1) People participated more in politics 2) New political ideologies came about and groups and allegiances formed based on these D) The Romantics had no single political creed – some were revolutionaries, others traditionalists II) Back to the Future: Restoring Order, 1815-1830 A) The Congress of Vienna and the Restoration 1) 1814 – Victorious European powers meet at the Congress of Vienna (a) Tsar Alexander I of Russia (i) Succeeded his father during the Napoleonic Wars (ii) Presented himself as “liberator” of Europe (iii)Russia had emerged as the most powerful Continental state (b) Klemens von Metternich of Austria (i) Attempted to arrange international affairs to suit his own diplomatic needs (ii) Central concerns Keeping Russian expansionism in check Preventing political and social change (iii)An archconservative who resorted to harsh repressive tactics (secret police, spying, etc) 2) Sought to restore “legitimate” authority (a) Recognized Louis XVIII as the legitimate sovereign of France (b) Restored Bourbon rulers to Spain and the two Sicilies (c) Dutch Republic was restored to the kingdom of the Netherlands 3) Guiding principle: balance of power – no country should be powerful enough to destabilize international relations 4) Peace of 1815 (a) Germany (i) Napoleon had reorganized the German states into the Confederation of the Rhine (ii) Vienna reduced the number of German states and principalities – linked them loosely to Prussia as a German Confederation under the honorary presidency of Austria (b) Poland (i) Made Poland an independent kingdom but gave control of it to Tsar Alexander (ii) Parts went to Prussia and Austria 5) Concert of Europe (a) Called by the Congress of Vienna to secure peace and create permanent stability (b) Quadruple Alliance (i) Included Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia (ii) Members met regularly and worked to suppress any disturbances (c) Tsar Alexander asks the allies to join in the declaration of the Holy Alliance (i) Dedicated to establishing justice, Christian charity, and peace (ii) Made other leaders suspicious of his intentions B) Revolt against Revolution 1) Restoration met opposition
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(a) Secret organizations – driven underground by repressive tactics (b) Italian Carbonari (i) Vowed to oppose Vienna and its allies (ii) 1820s – Influence spread through Southern Europe and France
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Chapter 20 Notes - Chapter 20 Notes From Restoration to...

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