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Chapter 19 Notes - Chapter 19 Notes The Industrial...

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Chapter 19 Notes The Industrial Revolution and Nineteenth-Century Society I) Introduction A) Term “industrial revolution” begins to be used in the 1830s and 40s B) Spanned 100 years from 1780 C) First breakthrough from agriculture to larger-scale manufacturing 1) New ways of organizing human labor 2) New energy sources – “the fossil fuel” age 3) Created new social classes and tensions II) The Industrial Revolution in Britain, 1760-1850 A) Great Britain 1) Small secure island nation, robust empire, control over crucial sea lanes 2) Ample supplies of coal, rivers, and a well developed system of canals 3) Agriculture was more thoroughly commercialized than elsewhere 4) “Enclosure” of fields and pastures (a) Turned small land holdings into large fenced areas (b) Owned and individually managed by landlords (c) This lead to commercialized agriculture (i) More productive (ii) Yielded more food (iii)Produced higher profit and wealth for land investors – this money would later become invested in industry 5) British aristocrats respected commoners and liked to invest 6) Foreign markets promised greater returns and risks than domestic 7) 1750-1770 – Production for export rose 80% while domestic consumption had only risen 7% B) Innovation in the Textile Industries 1) Cotton textiles (a) Tariffs (i) Prohibit imports of East Indian cottons (ii) Spurs manufacture of British cotton Imported raw materials from India and the American South Borrowed patterns from Indian spinners and weavers (b) Technology (i) New machines made better-quality (stronger and finer) thread (ii) 1733 – John Kay invents the flying shuttle (iii)1764 – James Hargreaves invents the spinning Jenny: capable of producing 16 threads at once (iv) 1793 – Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin Separates cotton seeds from fiber Speeds up production and reduces price Effects Plantations in the United States become more profitable (c) 1830s – British House of Commons holds hearings about employment and working conditions (i) Women and children make up 2/3 of labor force in textiles (ii) Factory acts Prohibit hiring children under 9 Limits labor of people under 18 to only 10 hours a day
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C) Coal and Iron 1) British can substitute coal for wood to heat metal and make iron (a) “Pig iron” was higher quality and could be used for building (b) Machines, engines, railway tracks, agricultural implements, hardware 2) Britain could export coal and iron (a) 1814-1852 – Export of British iron doubled (b) Britain produced over half of the world’s total iron – over 1 million tons 3) Steam power (a) 1711 (i) Thomas Newcomen devised a steam engine for pumping water from mines (ii) Usefulness was limited by the amount of fuel it consumed (b) 1763 – James Watt (i) Made agricultural instruments at the University of Glasgow (ii) Was asked to repair a model of the Newcomen engine (iii)Found a way to improve it Added a separate chamber to condense the steam eliminating the need to cool the cylinder 1769 – Patented the new steam engine
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