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Chapter 18 Notes

Chapter 18 Notes - Ch 18 Notes The French Revolution I...

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Ch. 18 Notes The French Revolution I) Introduction A) 1789 – One out of five Europeans live in France B) Aristocrats throughout Europe and colonies resented the revoking of their privileges C) American Revolution 1) One of the last matters in the control for colonies in the New World 2) Showed that the people could in fact overthrow the highest government II) The French Revolution: An Overview A) 1789-1799 B) Three stages 1) 1788-1792 (a) Struggle was constitutional and relatively peaceful (b) The Elites (i) Told the king about their upset with the taking away of their privileges (ii) Refused taxation without representation (iii)Attacked arbitrary authority – despotism (iv) Offered a program to rejuvenate the nation (c) Reforms were instituted 2) 1792-1794 (a) Monarchy falls and is replaced with a republic (b) War breaks out 3) 1794-1799 (a) Government drifts into corruption (b) Military rule under Napoleon III) The Coming of the Revolution A) French society is divided into three estates 1) First estate – Clergy 2) Second estate – Nobility (a) Titles are accessible to anyone who can afford to buy one – made up of many wealthy former Bourgeois members (b) Wealth (i) Most was property (ii) Financing industry (iii)Investing in banking, ship owning, slave trade, mining, and metallurgy 3) Third estate – Everyone else (a) Largest estate (b) Wealthy, educated members believed they belonged to the elite and the king should hear them on issues of government and policy (c) Payment (i) All levied by the government (ii) Many kinds Tithes Levies on farm produce owed to the Church Fees for the use of the landlord’s mill or wine press General fees to the landlord (iii)Paid in proportionate amounts of both direct and indirect taxes B) Privilege is under attack C) Physiocrats
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1) Urge the government to simplify the tax system 2) Want to free the economy from mercantilist regulations 3) Lift controls on the price of grain D) Price rises 1) Generally rising prices allow French economy to expand – provides capital for investment 2) Creates hardship for peasantry and urban tradesman and laborers 3) 1780s (a) Poor harvests shoot up bread prices (b) 1788 – Families spend more than 50% of income on bread (c) Many peasants leave the countryside for cities – but unemployment is worse there E) Inefficient tax system 1) Taxing depended on social standing and on region 2) Financial system was hurt by debts from Louis XIV’s reign IV) The Destruction of the Old Regime A) 1787 – The King’s principal ministers attempted to institute a series of reforms to keep from going bankrupt: proposed new taxes B) Needed the nobility to agree to reforms 1) King summoned an Assembly of Notables from among the aristocracy 2) The Assembly said that any new tax scheme had to go through the Estates General 3) 1789 – King Louis XVI summons the Estates General (a) Each estate met and voted as a body (b) The Third estate was usually out voted by the First and Second
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Chapter 18 Notes - Ch 18 Notes The French Revolution I...

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