Chapter 17 Notes

Chapter 17 Notes - Chapter 17: The Enlightenment I)...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 17: The Enlightenment I) Introduction A) The case of Jean Calas 1) Convicted of murder by the Parliament of Toulouse in France 2) Brutally tortured twice (a) First to get him to confess (b) Second to force him to name his alleged accomplices 3) Guilty sentenced repealed 2 years after his execution B) Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) 1) Appalled by Calas’ verdict and punishment 2) Brought the horrors to the public eye (a) Contacted friends (b) Hired lawyers for the family (c) Wrote briefs, letters, and essays about the case C) Classic concerns of the enlightenment 1) Dangers of arbitrary and unchecked authority 2) Value of religious toleration 3) The overriding importance of law, reason, and human dignity in all affairs II) The Foundations of the Enlightenment A) Enlightenment writings shared some characteristics 1) Marked by a confidence in the powers of human reason 2) The goodness and perfectibility of humanity (a) Impacted greatly by the “Holy Trinity”: Bacon, Newton, and Locke (b) Education and had a critical role in shaping human character 3) Ambitious and wide ranging (a) The scientific method emerged
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
(b) Voltaire wrote plays, essays and letters; Rousseau composed music and wrote novels B) Enlightenment thinkers tried to shine a light on reason III) The World of the Philosophes A) Enlightenment thought was European and most prominent in France B) Enlightenment thinkers were called philosophes meaning free thinker in French, but few were actually philosophers C) Voltaire (1694-1778) 1) One of the best known philosophes 2) Exiled temporarily multiple times from France and other countries 3) Beliefs (a) Believed strongly in the ideas of Newton, Bacon, and Locke (b) Wanted to get rid of all forms of repression, fanaticism, and bigotry 4) Accomplishments (a) Popularizing Newton’s work in France (b) Introduced the British ideas of empiricism and the scientific method to France D) Montesquieu (1689-1755) 1) Wrote The Spirit of Laws – very Newtonian, asked about structures that shaped law 2) Proposed a classification of states (a) Republic: governed by the many; either the elite aristocracy or the people (b) Monarchy: a single authority governed in accordance with the law (c) Despotism: a single ruler governs unchecked by law or other powers 3) Admired the British system of separate and balanced powers (a) Executive, legislative, and judicial (b) Guaranteed the liberty of freedom from the absolute power of any governing individual or group E) Diderot and the Encyclopedia
Background image of page 2
1) The Encyclopedia (a) Made to summarize all the most advanced contemporary philosophical, scientific, and technical knowledge (b) Demonstrated how scientific analysis could be applied in nearly all realms of thought (c) Aimed to reconsider a large range of traditions and institutions (d) Put reason to the task of bringing happiness and progress to humanity 2) Denis Diderot (a) Guided the idea and creation of the Encyclopedia (b) Helped by Newtonian mathematician Jean Le Rond d’Alembert,
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 11

Chapter 17 Notes - Chapter 17: The Enlightenment I)...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online