ch04_Igneous Rocks_online_notes

ch04_Igneous Rocks_online_notes - Chapter 5 : Rocks from...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5 : Rocks from molten liquids Rocks from molten liquids Including adaptions from Dupre and Copeland (2004) Concepts you should know for the exam Texture grain size of intrusive (e.g., granite) and extrusive rocks (e.g., basalt) Relative cooling rates of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks Rocks from lavas vs. pyroclastic rocks Mafic, intermediate and felsic rocks Know table! (Temperature, Silica, Na, K, Fe, Mg, Ca content) Melting point as a function of pressure, water content and composition Partial melting of magma-generating rocks Fractional crystallization Shapes of magmatic bodies sills, dykes, batholiths Hot spots and volcanoes (mafic composition) Volcanoes at convergent margins ( mafic to felsic composition) Volcanoes at divergent margins (mafic composition) Lavas, welded tuff, vesicular basalt, volcanic bombs, pyroclastic flows, volcanic cloud Relation between the shape of volcano, chemistry, viscosity of lavas (shield volcano, cinder cone volcano,composite volcano) Dangerous pyroclastic flows cause almost 30% fatalities natural disasters vs. tsunamis (~20%) Lecture Outline Lecture Outline 1. 1. Where do magmas form? Where do magmas form? 2. 2. How do igneous rocks differ from one How do igneous rocks differ from one another? another? 3. How do magmas form? 3. How do magmas form? 4. Magmatic differentiation 4. Magmatic differentiation 5. Forms of magmatic intrusion 5. Forms of magmatic intrusion 6. Igneous activity and plate tectonics 6. Igneous activity and plate tectonics Lecture Outline Lecture Outline 1. 1. Where do magmas form? Where do magmas form? 1. 1. How do igneous rocks differ from one How do igneous rocks differ from one another? another? 3. How do magmas form? 3. How do magmas form? 4. Magmatic differentiation 4. Magmatic differentiation 5. Forms of magmatic intrusion 5. Forms of magmatic intrusion 6. Igneous activity and plate tectonics 6. Igneous activity and plate tectonics Divergent Plate Boundary Usually start within continents grows to become ocean basin 2. How do igneous rocks differ How do igneous rocks differ from one another? from one another? Texture size of crystals Texture size of crystals Coarse-grained rocks Coarse-grained rocks Fine-grained rocks Fine-grained rocks Mixed texture rocks Mixed texture rocks 1....
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ch04_Igneous Rocks_online_notes - Chapter 5 : Rocks from...

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